Environmental Contaminants

Assessment and Control


  • Daniel Vallero, Pratt School of Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA

This book serves as a tool for environmental professionals to produce technically sound and reproducible scientific evidence. It identifies ways to clean up environmental problems in air, water, soil, sediment and living systems. Ethical issues, environmental management, and professionalism, and environmental economic problems are illustrated to assist the reader in understanding and applying quantitative analysis of environmental problems.

Supplemental materials are available at the Companion Website http://www.elsevierdirect.com/companion.jsp?ISBN=9780127100579
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Environmental Professionals, Risk Assessment Engineers, Chemical Engineers, Environmental Toxicology Engineers, Soils Scientists, Ecologist, Geoscientists, Hydrologists


Book information

  • Published: July 2004
  • ISBN: 978-0-12-710057-9


Environmental professionals will find this book valuable for understanding policy and for generating technically sound and reproducible science. The text gives real-life solutions to problems and provides case studies to illustrate ethical dilemas. A comprehensive glossary, appendices, and tables provide additional information. - Environmental Science and Technology, Nov. 2004 "The book has a plethora of basic information on waste treatment...there is a good discussion of both incineration and biological waste treatment." - Journal of Hazardous Materials, March 2005

Table of Contents

PrefacePrologue: The ChallengeAcknowledgmentsAuthor’s Note on Discussion Boxes, Equations, and Concentration UnitsPart I: An Environmental Policy Primer1. Scientific and Engineering Perspectives of Environmental Contaminantsa. The Evolution and Progress of Environmental Science and Engineeringb. What is a Contaminant?c. Understanding Policy by Understanding Scienced. Connections and Interrelationships of Environmental Sciencee. Environmental Assessment and Interventionf. Introduction to Environmental Policyg. Urban Air Pollutionh. Acid Depositioni. Protection the Ozone Layerj. Water Quality Legislationk. Solid and Hazardous Wastes Lawsl. Environmental Product and Consumer Protection LawsPart II: Fundamentals of Environmental Science and Engineering Introduction to Part II2. Fundamentals of Environmental Physicsa. Principles and Concepts of Energy and Matter Important to the Environmentb. Mass and Workc. Environmental Mechanics3. Applied Contaminant Physics: Fluid Propertiesa. Physical Properties of Environmental Fluidsb. Velocityc. Discharge and Flowd. Pressuree. Accelerationf. Displacement, Velocity, and Accelerationg. Densityh. Specific Gravity4. Environmental Equilibrium, Partitioning, and Balancesa. Fundamentals of Environmental Equilibriab. Solubility as Physical and Chemical Phenomenonc. Intramolecular Bonds, Intermolecular Forces, and Molecular Dipole Momentsd. Fluid Solubility/Density Relationshipse. Environmental Thermodynamicsf. The Environmental Mass Balance Reaction Term5. Movement of Contaminants in the Environmenta. Environmental Chemodynamics Modelsb. Selecting Units of Mass and Concentrations in Chemdynamicsc. Fugacity, Z Values, and Henry’s Lawd. How Contaminants Move in the Environmente. Overall Effect of the Fluxes, Sinks, and Sourcesf. Combining Transport and Degradation Processes Using Half-Lives and Rate Constants6. Fundamentals of Environmental Chemistrya. Basic Concepts of Environmental Chemistryb. Organic Chemistry7. Chemical Reactions in the Environmenta. Environmental Ionic Reactionsb. Environmental Acid and Base Chemistryc. Precipitation Reactions in Environmental Engineeringd. Oxidation-Reduction Reactionse. Biological Redox Reactionsf. Environmental Metal Chemistry8. Biological Principles of Environmental Contaminationa. The Cellb. The “Bio” Termsc. Biomarkers of Contaminants d. Accelerated Biodegradation: Bioremediatione. Biocriteria: A New Way to Determine Environmental QualityPart III: Contaminant Risk9. Contaminant Hazardsa. Environmental Toxicologyb. Toxicity Testingc. Hazardous Waste Characterisiticsd. Bio-Effective Dosee. Toxicokinetics and Toxicodynamicsf. Environmental Epidemiologyg. Contaminant Groupingsh. Carcinogensi. Chronic Noncancer Health Endpointsj. Environmental Endocrine Disruptorsk. Neurotoxinsl. Immunotoxinsm. Ecological Toxicity10. Contaminant Exposure and Risk Calculationsa. Exposure Assessmentb. Calculating Riskc. Applying Cancer Risk Calculations to Cleanup Levelsd. Non-Cancer Hazard and Risk Calculationse. Comprehensive Risk CommunicationPart IV: Interventions to Address Environmental Contamination11. Contaminant Sampling and Analysisa. Environmental Monitoringb. Laboratory Analysisc. Sources of Uncertaintyd. Chemiluminescence and Fluorescent In-Situ Hybridizatione. Integration of Monitoring Techniques: Chmiluminescence12. Intervention: Manging the Risks of Environmental Contaminationa. A Template for Cleaning Up Contaminantsb. Characterizing Contaminants in the Environmentc. Estimating Contaminant Migrationd. Treatability Testse. Contaminant Treatment and Control Approachesf. Thermal Processing: The Science, Engineering and Technology of Contaminant Destructiong. Microbiological Processing: The Science, Engineering, and Technology of Contaminant Biotreatmenth. Hazardous Waste Storage Landfills: Examples of the Science, Engineering, and Technology of Long-Term Storage of Contaminated Mediai. Sitingj. Ex Situ and In Situ Treatment13. Environmental Decisions and Professionalisma. Communicating Scientific Informationb. Environmental Information Management14. Epilogue: Benzene Metabolism Revisiteda. The Sensitivity Analysis: An Important Step Beyond Stoichiometryb. Interdependence between a Contaminant and a SubstrateGlossary of Environmental Sciences and Engineering TerminologyAppendix 1. Appendix 2. Appendix 3. Appendix 4.Appendix 5.Appendix 6. Appendix 7. Appendix 8. Appendix 9. Index