Enhanced Recovery Methods for Heavy Oil and Tar Sands

By

  • James Speight, Editor, Petroleum Science and Technology (formerly Fuel Science and Technology International) and editor of the journal, Energy Sources. Dr. Speight is also Adjunct Professor of Chemical and Fuels Engineering at the University of Utah.

Recent oil price fluctuations continue to stress the need for more efficient recovery of heavy oil and tar sand bitumen resources. With conventional production steadily declining, advances in enhanced recovery will be required so that oil production can be extended and reservoirs last longer. A practical guide on heavy-oil related recovery methods is essential for all involved in heavy oil production. To feed this demand, James Speight, a well-respected scientist and author, provides a must-read for all scientists, engineers and technologists that are involved in production enhancement. In Enhanced Recovery Methods for Heavy Oil and Tar Sands, Speight provides the current methods of recovery for heavy oil and tar sand bitumen technology, broken down by thermal and non-thermal methods. An engineer, graduate student or professional working with heavy oil, upcoming and current, will greatly benefit from this much-needed text.
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Book information

  • Published: November 2013
  • Imprint: GULF PUBLISHING COMPANY
  • ISBN: 978-0-12-799988-3


Table of Contents


List of Figures

List of Tables

Preface

Chapter 1 Definitions

1.1 History

1.2 Petroleum

1.3 Heavy Oil

1.4 Tar Sand Bitumen

1.5 Validity of the Definitions

1.6 Conclusions

1.7 References

Chapter 2 Origin and Occurrence

2.1 Origin of Petroleum and Heavy Oil

2.1.1 Abiogenic Origin

2.1.2 Biogenic Origin

2.1.3 Occurrence and Distribution

2.2 Reservoirs

2.3 Reserves

2.3.1 Definitions

2.3.2 The Real Numbers

2.4 Production

2.5 Oil Pricing

2.5.1 Oil Price History

2.5.2 Pricing Strategies

2.5.3 The Role of Heavy Oil in the Future

2.6 References

Chapter 3 Reservoirs and Reservoir Fluids

3.1 Reservoirs

3.1.1 Structural Traps

3.1.2 Heterogeneity

3.2 Classes of Fluids

3.3 Evaluation of Reservoir Fluids

3.3.1 Sampling Methods

3.3.2 Data Acquisition and QA/QC

3.4 Physical (Bulk) Composition and Molecular Weight

3.4.1 Sampling

3.4.2 Asphaltene Separation

3.4.3 Fractionation

3.4.4 Molecular Weight

3.5 Reservoir Evaluation

3.6 References

Chapter 4 Properties

4.1 Physical Properties

4.1.1 Sampling

4.1.2 Elemental (Ultimate) Analysis

4.1.3 Metals Content

4.1.4 Density and Specific Gravity

4.1.5 Viscosity

4.2 Thermal Properties

4.2.1 Carbon Residue

4.2.2 Specific Heat

4.2.3 Heat of Combustion

4.2.4 Volatility

4.2.5 Liquefaction and Solidification

4.2.6 Solubility

4.3 Metals Content

4.4 References

Chapter 5 Exploration and General Methods for Oil Recovery

5.1 Exploration

5.2 Primary Recovery (Natural) Methods

5.3 Secondary Recovery

5.4 Enhanced Oil Recovery

5.4.1 Thermal Recovery Methods

5.4.2 Gas Flood Recovery Methods

5.4.3 Chemical Flood Recovery Methods

5.5 References

Chapter 6 Nonthermal Methods of Recovery

6.1 Primary Recovery (Natural) Methods

6.2 Secondary Recovery Methods

6.2.1 Waterflooding

6.2.2 Gas Injection

6.2.3 Cold Production

6.2.4 Pressure Pulse Technology

6.2.5 Solvent Processes

6.3 Enhanced Oil Recovery Methods

6.3.1 Alkaline Flooding

6.3.2 Carbon Dioxide Flooding

6.3.3 Cyclic Carbon Dioxide Stimulation

6.3.4 Nitrogen Flooding

6.3.5 Polymer Flooding

6.3.6 Micellar Polymer Flooding

6.3.7 Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery

6.4 Oil Mining

6.5 References

Chapter 7 Thermal Methods of Recovery

7.1 Hot-Fluid Injection

7.2 Steam-Based Methods

7.2.1 Steam Drive Injection (Steam Injection)

7.2.2 Cyclic Steam Injection

7.2.3 Steam Drive

7.3 In Situ Combustion Processes

7.3.1 Forward Combustion

7.3.2 Reverse Combustion

7.3.3 The THAI Process

7.4 Other Processes

7.4.1 Horizontal Well Technology

7.4.2 Inert Gas Technology

7.4.3 Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD)

7.4.4 Hybrid Processes

7.5 In Situ Upgrading

7.6 References

Chapter 8 Upgrading Heavy Oil

8.1 Surface Upgrading

8.1.1 Thermal Cracking Processes

8.1.2 Catalytic Cracking Processes

8.1.3 Hydrogen Addition Processes

8.1.4 Solvent Processes

8.2 In Situ Upgrading

8.2.1 Solvent-Based Processes

8.2.2 Bulk Thermal Processes

8.3 References

App A Conversion Factors

Glossary

Index