Enhanced Oil Recovery, II
Processes and OperationsEdited By
- E.C. Donaldson
- G.V. Chilingarian
- T.F. Yen
Written by foremost experts in the field, and formulated with attention to classroom use for advanced studies in reservoir characterization and processes, this book reviews and summarises state-of-the-art progress in the field of enhanced oil recovery (EOR). All of the available techniques: alkaline flooding; surfactant flooding; carbon dioxide flooding; steam flooding; in-situ combustion; gas injection; miscible flooding; microbial recovery; and polymer flooding are discussed and compared. Together with Volume I, it presents a complete text on enhanced recovery technology and, hence, is an almost indispensible reference text.This second volume compliments the first by presenting as complete an analysis as possible of current oilfield theory and technology, for accomplishment of maximum production of oil. Many different processes have been developed and field tested for enhancement of oil recovery. The emerging philosophy is that no single process is applicable to all petroleum reservoirs. Each must be treated as unique, and carefully evaluated for characteristics that are amenable to one or two of the proven technologies of EOR. This book will aid the engineer in field evaluation and selection of the best EOR technology for a given oilfield. Even the emerging technology of microbial applications to enhance oil recovery are reviewed and explained in terms that are easily understood by field engineers.The book is presented in a manner suitable for graduate studies. The only addition required of teachers is to supply example problems for class work. An appendix includes a reservoir mathematic model and program for general application that can also be used for teaching.
Developments in Petroleum Science
Published: July 1989
- List of Contributors. 1. Introduction (E.C. Donaldson et al.). Oil recovery processes. References. 2. Geological Factors in Enhanced Oil Recovery (P.A. Dickey). Reservoir heterogeneities (the most frequent cause for failure of enhanced recovery projects). Examples of geological factors in enhanced recovery projects. Structure and composition of reservoir rocks. Natural fractures. References. 3. Determination of Residual Oil Saturation Based on Geophysical Well Logging Techniques (W.H. Fertl, G.V. Chilingarian). Introduction. Determination of residual oil saturation. Well-log-derived oil saturation determination in open hole. Residual oil saturation determination in cased wellbores. Conclusions. References. 4. Gas Injection (J. Torabzadeh et al.). Introduction. Predictive techniques. Reservoir performance. Gas injection in carbonate reservoirs. Inert gas injection. Candidates for gas injection. References. 5. Miscible Flooding (A. Mehdizadeh et al.). Introduction. Sweep efficiency. High-pressure gas injection. Enriched-gas drive. Liquid petroleum gas (LPG) slug drive. Predictive techniques. Field applications. References. 6. Carbon Dioxide Flooding (C.S. Matthews). Introduction. History. Process description. Field projects. Carbon dioxide sources. Problem areas. Designing a CO2 flood. Guidelines for selection of miscible CO2 projects. Immiscible CO2 flooding. Conclusions. References. 7. Polymer Flooding (R. Caenn et al.). Introduction. Polymer products and theory of use. Planning polymer flood projects. References. 8. Polyacrylamides (W.S. Yen et al.). Introduction. Polyacrylamide chemistry. Application of PAM/AA in enhanced oil recovery. Factors affecting flow in porous media. Field considerations. Site factors. Field operation. Case histories. References. 9. Alkaline Flooding (S. Kumar et al.). Introduction. Types of caustic used. Entrapment of residual oil. Displacement mechanisms in alkaline flooding. Crude oil properties. Alkali consumption. pH of injected caustic. Effects of sodium ions and sodium chloride. Effect of divalent ions. Reservoir selection. Pilot testing. Documented alkaline flooding field tests. Summary. References. 10. Use of Surfactants in Oil Recovery (M.K. Sharma, D.O. Shah). Introduction. Classification of EOR surfactants. Mechanism of oil displacement by surfactant flooding. Ultra-low interfacial tension in relation to oil displacement by surfactant flooding. Factors influencing oil recovery. Surfactant-gas (foam) flooding for oil recovery. Interfacial phenomena in surfactant-gas (foam) flooding. Mechanism of surfactant loss in porous media. Present status of the use of surfactants in oil recovery. References. 11. Steamflooding for Enhanced Oil Recovery (K.L. Goyal, S. Kumar). Introduction. Theory. Screening criteria for steamflood prospects. Reservoir rock and fluid properties. Heat losses and formation heating. Oil recovery calculations. An overview of steamflood modelling. Parametric studies in steamflooding. Economics of the steamflooding process. Summary. References. 12. Operational Aspects of Steam Injection Processes (M. Prats). Introduction. Water treatment for steam generation. Steam generators. Determination of steam quality. Wells. Production facilities. Moving the crude oil from the field. Disposal. Special situations. Operations. References. 13. In-situ Combustion Technology (M.K. Sharma). Introduction. Reservoir characteristics. Ignition. Ignition methods. Processes of in-situ combustion. Use of in-situ combustion. Conclusions. Current status of in-situ combustion. References. 14. Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (R.S. Bryant et al.). Microorganisms. Historical development of microbial enhancement of oil recovery. Laboratory experiments show the potential of microbial enhancement of oil recovery. Field applications of microbial enhancement of oil recovery. Microbes associated with oilfield problems. Microbial interactions with produced oil. Potential of microbial enhancement of oil recovery. Injection of cells and spores. Summary. References. 15. Evaluation and Monitoring of Enhanced Oil Recovery Projects Based on Geophysical Well Logging Technqiues (W.H. Fertl, G.V. Chilingarian). Introduction. Completion constraints and borehole integrity checks. Reservoir porosity determination. Cased observation wells. Cased-hole logging - formation evaluation logs. Digital log analysis (ELILOG) techniques using Neutron Lifetime logging. Time-lapse reservoir monitoring using Neutron Lifetime logging. Continuous carbon-oxygen (C/O) log. Log-derived evaluation of thermal recovery processes. Log-derived evaluation of miscible displacement processes. Chemical recovery processes. References. 16. Environmental Factors Associated with Oil Recovery (E.C. Donaldson et al.). Introduction. Primary and secondary production. Chemical flooding. Micellar-polymer processes. Thermal processes. Gasflooding. Research. References. Appendix - Finite Element Solution for Flow of Immiscible Fluids in Petroleum Reservoirs (A.R. Kukreti et al.). Introduction. Flow description. Finite element solution. Formulation of element matrices for two-phase flow (water and oil). Computer program. Application. References. Program listing. References Index. Subject Index.