### Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1 Overview of Compilation

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Compiler Structure

1.3 Overview of Translation

1.3.1 The Front End

1.3.2 The Optimizer

1.3.3 The Back End

1.4 Summary and Perspective

CHAPTER 2 Scanners

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Recognizing Words

2.2.1 A Formalism for Recognizers

2.2.2 Recognizing More Complex Words

2.3 Regular Expressions

2.3.1 Formalizing the Notation

2.3.2 Examples

2.3.3 Closure Properties of REs

2.4 From Regular Expression to Scanner

2.4.1 Nondeterministic Finite Automata

2.4.2 Regular Expression to NFA: Thompsonâs Construction

2.4.3 NFA to DFA: The Subset Construction

2.4.4 DFA to Minimal DFA: Hopcroftâs Algorithm

2.4.5 Using a DFA as a Recognizer

2.5 Implementing Scanners

2.5.1 Table-Driven Scanners

2.5.2 Direct-Coded Scanners

2.5.3 Hand-coded Scanners

2.5.4 Handling Keywords

2.6 Advanced Topics

2.6.1 DFA to Regular Expression

2.6.2 Another Approach to DFA Minimization: Brzozowskiâs Algorithm

2.6.3 Closure-free Regular Expressions

2.7 Chapter Summary and Perspective

CHAPTER 3 Parsers

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Expressing Syntax

3.2.1 Why Not Regular Expressions?

3.2.2 Context-Free Grammars

3.2.3 More Complex Examples

3.2.4 Encoding Meaning into Structure

3.2.5 Discovering a Derivation for an Input String

3.3 Top-Down Parsing

3.3.1 Transforming a Grammar for Top-Down Parsing

3.3.2 Top-Down Recursive-Descent Parsers

3.3.3 Table-Driven LL(1) Parsers

3.4 Bottom-Up Parsing

3.4.1 The LR(1) Parsing Algorithm

3.4.2 Building LR(1) Tables

3.4.3 Errors in the Table Construction

3.5 Practical Issues

3.5.1 Error Recovery

3.5.2 Unary Operators

3.5.3 Handling Context-Sensitive Ambiguity

3.5.4 Left versus Right Recursion

3.6 Advanced Topics 1

3.6.1 Optimizing a Grammar

3.6.2 Reducing the Size of LR(1) Tables

3.7 Summary and Perspective

CHAPTER 4 Context-Sensitive Analysis

4.1 Introduction

4.2 An Introduction to Type Systems

4.2.1 The Purpose of Type Systems

4.2.2 Components of a Type System

4.3 The Attribute-Grammar Framework

4.3.1 Evaluation Methods

4.3.2 Circularity

4.3.3 Extended Examples

4.3.4 Problems with the Attribute-Grammar Approach

4.4 Ad Hoc Syntax-Directed Translation

4.4.1 Implementing Ad Hoc Syntax-Directed Translation

4.4.2 Examples

4.5 Advanced Topics

4.5.1 Harder Problems in Type Inference

4.5.2 Changing Associativity

4.6 Summary and Perspective

CHAPTER 5 Intermediate Representations

5.1 Introduction

5.1.1 A Taxonomy of Intermediate Representations

5.2 Graphical IRs

5.2.1 Syntax-Related Trees

5.2.2 Graphs

5.2.3 Review Questions

5.3 Linear IRs

5.3.1 Stack-Machine Code

5.3.2 Three-Address Code

5.3.3 Representing Linear Codes

5.3.4 Building a Control-flow Graph from a Linear Code

5.4 Mapping Values to Names

5.4.1 Naming Temporary Values

5.4.2 Static Single-Assignment Form

5.4.3 Memory Models

5.5 Symbol Tables

5.5.1 Hash Tables

5.5.2 Building a Symbol Table

5.5.3 Handling Nested Scopes

5.5.4 The Many Uses for Symbol Tables

5.5.5 Other Uses for Symbol Table Technology

5.6 Summary and Perspective

CHAPTER 6 The Procedure Abstraction

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Procedure Calls

6.3 Name Spaces 2

6.3.1 Name Spaces of Algol-like Languages

6.3.2 Runtime Structures to Support Algol-like Languages

6.3.3 Name Spaces of Object-Oriented Languages

6.3.4 Runtime Structures to Support Object-Oriented Languages

6.4 Communicating Values Between Procedures

6.4.1 Passing Parameters

6.4.2 Returning Values

6.4.3 Establishing Addressability

6.5 Standardized Linkages

6.6 Advanced Topics

6.6.1 Explicit Heap Management

6.6.2 Implicit Deallocation

6.7 Summary and Perspective

CHAPTER 7 Code Shape

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Assigning Storage Locations

7.2.1 Placing Runtime Data Structures

7.2.2 Layout for Data Areas

7.2.3 Keeping Values in Registers

7.3 Arithmetic Operators

7.3.1 Reducing Demand for Registers

7.3.2 Accessing Parameter Values

7.3.3 Function Calls in an Expression

7.3.4 Other Arithmetic Operators

7.3.5 Mixed-Type Expressions

7.3.6 Assignment as an Operator

7.4 Boolean and Relational Operators

7.4.1 Representations

7.4.2 Hardware Support for Relational Operations

7.5 Storing and Accessing Arrays

7.5.1 Referencing a Vector Element

7.5.2 Array Storage Layout

7.5.3 Referencing an Array Element

7.5.4 Range Checking

7.6 Character Strings

7.6.1 String Representations

7.6.2 String Assignment

7.6.3 String Concatenation

7.6.4 String Length

7.7 Structure References

7.7.1 Understanding Structure Layouts

7.7.2 Arrays of Structures

7.7.3 Unions and Runtime Tags

7.7.4 Pointers and Anonymous Values

7.8 Control-Flow Constructs

7.8.1 Conditional Execution

7.8.2 Loops and Iteration

7.8.3 Case Statements

7.9 Procedure Calls

7.9.1 Evaluating Actual Parameters

7.9.2 Saving and Restoring Registers

7.10 Summary and Perspective

CHAPTER 8 Introduction to Optimization

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Background

8.2.1 Examples

8.2.2 Considerations for Optimization

8.2.3 Opportunities for Optimization

8.3 Scope of Optimization

8.4 Local Optimization

8.4.1 Local Value Numbering

8.4.2 Tree-height Balancing

8.5 Regional Optimization

8.5.1 Superlocal Value Numbering

8.5.2 Loop Unrolling

8.6 Global Optimization

8.6.1 Finding Uninitialized Variables with Live Information

8.6.2 Global Code Placement

8.7 Interprocedural Optimization

8.7.1 Inline Substitution

8.7.2 Procedure Placement

8.7.3 Compiler Organization for Interprocedural Optimization

8.8 Summary and Perspective

CHAPTER 9 Data-Flow Analysis

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Iterative Data-Flow Analysis

9.2.1 Dominance

9.2.2 Live Variable Analysis

9.2.3 Limitations on Data-Flow Analysis

9.2.4 Other Data-Flow Problems

9.3 Static Single-Assignment Form

9.3.1 A Simple Method for Building SSA Form

9.3.2 Dominance Frontiers

9.3.3 Placing f-Functions

9.3.4 Renaming

9.3.5 Translation Out of SSA Form

9.3.6 Using Static Single Assignment Form

9.4 Interprocedural Analysis

9.4.1 Call Graph Construction

9.4.2 Interprocedural Constant Propagation

9.5 Advanced Topics

9.5.1 Structural Data-Flow Algorithms and Reducibility

9.5.2 Speeding up the Iterative Dominance Framework

9.6 Summary and Perspective

CHAPTER 10 Scalar Optimizations

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Eliminating Useless and Unreachable Code

10.2.1 Eliminating Useless Code

10.2.2 Eliminating Useless Control Flow

10.2.3 Eliminating Unreachable Code

10.3 Code Motion

10.3.1 Lazy Code Motion

10.3.2 Code Hoisting

10.4 Specialization

10.4.1 Tail Call Optimization

10.4.2 Leaf Call Optimization

10.4.3 Parameter Promotion

10.5 Redundancy Elimination

10.5.1 Value Identity versus Name Identity

10.5.2 Dominator-based Value Numbering

10.6 Enabling Other Transformations

10.6.1 Superblock Cloning

10.6.2 Procedure Cloning

10.6.3 Loop Unswitching

10.6.4 Renaming

10.7 Advanced Topics

10.7.1 Combining Optimizations

10.7.2 Strength Reduction

10.7.3 Choosing an Optimization Sequence

10.8 Summary and Perspective

CHAPTER 11 Instruction Selection

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Code Generation

11.3 Extending the Simple Tree-Walk Scheme

11.4 Instruction Selection via Tree-Pattern Matching

11.4.1 Rewrite Rules

11.4.2 Finding a Tiling

11.4.3 Tools

11.5 Instruction Selection via Peephole Optimization

11.5.1 Peephole Optimization

11.5.2 Peephole Transformers

11.6 Advanced Topics

11.6.1 Learning Peephole Patterns

11.6.2 Generating Instruction Sequences

11.7 Summary and Perspective

CHAPTER 12 Instruction Scheduling

12.1 Introduction

12.2 The Instruction-Scheduling Problem

12.2.1 Other Measures of Schedule Quality

12.2.2 What Makes Scheduling Hard?

12.3 Local List Scheduling

12.3.1 The Algorithm

12.3.2 Scheduling Operations with Variable Delays

12.3.3 Extending the Algorithm

12.3.4 Tie Breaking in the List Scheduling Algorithm

12.3.5 Forward versus Backward List Scheduling

12.3.6 Improving the Efficiency of List Scheduling

12.4 Regional Scheduling

12.4.1 Scheduling Extended Basic Blocks

12.4.2 Trace Scheduling

12.4.3 Cloning for Context

12.5 Advanced Topics

12.5.1 The Strategy of Software Pipelining

12.5.2 An Algorithm for Software Pipelining

12.6 Summary and Perspective

CHAPTER 13 Register Allocation

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Background Issues

13.2.1 Memory versus Registers

13.2.2 Allocation versus Assignment

13.2.3 Register Classes

13.3 Local Register Allocation and Assignment

13.3.1 Top-Down Local Register Allocation

13.3.2 Bottom-Up Local Register Allocation

13.3.3 Moving Beyond Single Blocks

13.4 Global Register Allocation and Assignment

13.4.1 Discovering Global Live Ranges

13.4.2 Estimating Global Spill Costs

13.4.3 Interferences and the Interference Graph

13.4.4 Top-Down Coloring

13.4.5 Bottom-Up Coloring

13.4.6 Coalescing Copies to Reduce Degree

13.4.7 Comparing Top-Down and Bottom-Up Global Allocators

13.4.8 Encoding Machine Constraints in the Interference Graph

13.5 Advanced Topics

13.5.1 Variations on Graph-Coloring Allocation

13.5.2 Global Register Allocation over SSA Form

13.6 Summary and Perspective

CHAPTER A ILOC

A.1 Introduction

A.2 Naming Conventions

A.3 Individual Operations

A.3.1 Arithmetic

A.3.2 Shifts

A.3.3 Memory Operations

A.3.4 Register-to-Register Copy Operations

A.4 Control-Flow Operations

A.4.1 Alternate Comparison and Branch Syntax

A.4.2 Jumps

A.5 Representing SSA Form

CHAPTER B Data Structures

B.1 Introduction

B.2 Representing Sets

B.2.1 Representing Sets as Ordered Lists

B.2.2 Representing Sets as Bit Vectors

B.2.3 Representing Sparse Sets

B.3 Implementing Intermediate Representations

B.3.1 Graphical Intermediate Representations

B.3.2 Linear Intermediate Forms

B.4 Implementing Hash Tables

B.4.1 Choosing a Hash Function

B.4.2 Open Hashing

B.4.3 Open Addressing

B.4.4 Storing Symbol Records

B.4.5 Adding Nested Lexical Scopes

B.5 A Flexible Symbol-Table Design