Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence AnalysisBy
- B. Dziunikowski, Institute of Physics and Nuclear Techniques, Academy of Mining and Metallurgy, Warsaw, Poland
In Volume IIC of the series, G.L. Macdonald contributed a chapter on X-Ray Spectrometry in which the principles of X-ray fluorescence analysis were presented with great clarity. Since that contribution appeared in 1971 tremendous developments have taken place with one of the most important new features being the appearance of energy-dispersive methods.This new volume gives a detailed and up-to-date account of this important technique. It covers the various physical and technical problems associated with this analytical method, with emphasis on explaining the interferences due to matrix and particle size effects. Methods for overcoming these interferences are described and other sources of errors and the processing of measurement data are discussed. Also described are numerous applications of EDXRF analysis in a variety of fields including geological prospecting and mining, trace element analysis, biology, medicine, environmental pollution control, archaeology, forensic sciences, and others.
Comprehensive Analytical Chemistry
Published: December 1989
...has a strong fundamental and yet practical approach: it is extremely readable and is strongly recommended. It provides a very well-balanced overview of the underlying theory, the advantages and the limitations of EDXRF as an analytical tool, and especially as an option for minerals analysis.
Intl. Journal of Radiation Applications and Instrumentation
...overall presentation quality good. ...this important book deserves a place in the analytical chemistry section of any library and is essential reading for anyone wanting to know what makes the ever-popular benchtop EDXRF machine tick.
- 1. Fundamentals. Energy quantization. Distribution of electrons in an atom. Atom excitation. Atom deexcitation. Photon scattering. Attenuation of X-ray beam. Mean and effective atomic number. 2. Sources of Primary (Exciting) Radiation. Properties of radioisotope sources. Production of radioisotope sources. Isotope X-ray sources. Influence of measuring conditions on the shape of X-ray spectrum. Low-power X-ray tubes. 3. Secondary Radiation of Sample. Intensity of fluorescence radiation. Intensity of scattered radiation. 4. Detection of X-Rays. Proportional counter. Scintillation counter. Solid-state detector. Detection efficiency. Energy resolution. Gas proportional-scintillation counters. 5. X-Ray Spectrometry. Electronic methods (pulse-height selection). Filter methods. Radiator methods. 6. Selection of Optimum Conditions for Analysis. Calibration. Sensitivity of analysis. Factors influencing sensitivity. 7. Disturbing Effects. Interelement radiation. Matrix effects. Particle-size effects. Mineralogical effects. Surface effects. 8. Methods for Eliminating Matrix Effects. Analysis of three-component materials. Analysis of multicomponent materials. Calculation correction methods. Methods requiring special preparation of samples. 9. Other Sources of Errors. Errors due to statistical fluctuations. Equipment effects. Background interference. Effects due to the physical state of the sample. 10. Processing of Measurement Data. Statistical distributions and their parameters. Precision. Accuracy. Rejecting an outlier. Decision limit, detection limit, and determination limit. 11. Applications of Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis in Geological Prospecting and Mining. Field prospecting analyses. Analysis of drill cores and drillings. Analyses in boreholes (X-ray fluorescence logging). Laboratory analyses of geological materials. Analyses of lunar and Martian surfaces. 12. On-Stream Analyses. Introduction. Mineral processing control. Calciferous sludge analysis. Analysis of loose materials. 13. Trace Analysis. Introduction. Preconcentration methods. Analysis of water and effluent-waste pollutants. Analysis of air pollutants. X-ray fluorescence analysis in medical applications. 14. Miscellaneous Applications. Alloy analysis. Analysis of solutions. Analysis of gases. Analysis of petroleum products. Analysis of paints and lacquers. EDXRF analysis in archaeology. Coating thickness measurements. Other applications of EDXRF. References. Subject Index.