Energy Conservation in the Process Industries

By

  • W. F. Kenney

Energy Conservation in the Process Industries provides insight into ways of identifying more important energy efficiency improvements. This book demonstrates how the principles can be employed to practical advantage.Organized into 12 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the energy situation and a background in thermodynamics. This text then describes a staged method to improved energy use to understand where the energy goes and how to calculate the value of losses. Other chapters consider improving facilities based on an understanding of the overall site energy system. This book discusses as well the fundamental process and equipment improvements. The final chapter deals with systematic and sophisticated design methods as well as provides some guidelines and checklists for energy conservation items.This book is a valuable resource for mechanical, lead process, and plant engineers involved in energy conservation. Process designers, plant managers, process researchers, and accountants will also find this book extremely useful.
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Book information

  • Published: July 1984
  • Imprint: ACADEMIC PRESS
  • ISBN: 978-0-12-404220-9


Table of Contents


Preface

List of Common Symbols

1. Energy Outlook

Introduction

I. Scope of the Problem

II. Thermodynamic Efficiencies

III. The Fundamental Strategy

Notes

2. The Second Law of Thermodynamics Revisited

Differences between Laws

I. Definitions

II. Available Energy and Fuel

Summary

Notes

3. Thermodynamics and Economics, Part I

Introduction

I. General Considerations

II. A Systematic Approach to Steam Pricing

III. Pricing Other Utilities

Summary

Notes

4. Characterizing Energy Use

Introduction

I. Understanding Energy Use

II. Missing Data

III. An Illustrative Onsite Audit

IV. An Illustrative Steam Power Balance

Summary

Notes

5. Optimum Performance of Existing Facilities

Introduction

I. Principle 1-Minimize Waste

II. Combustion Principles

III. Illustrative Problems-Combustion Efficiency

IV. Steam Trap Principles

V. Principle 2-Manage Energy Use Effectively

Summary

Notes

6. Facilities Improvement-An Overall Site Approach

Introduction

I. Utilizing the Energy Audit

II. Overall Site Interactions

III. Total Site Cogeneration Potential

Problem: Maximum Potential Fuel Utilization

IV. The Linear Programming Approach

Summary

Notes

7. Methodology of Thermodynamic Analysis: General Considerations

Introduction

Sign Conventions

I. Detailed Procedures

II. Illustrative Examples

Summary

Notes

8. Detailed Thermodynamic Analysis of Common Unit Operations

Introduction

I. Heat Exchange

II. Expansion-Pressure Letdown ΔΡ

III. Mixing

IV. Distillation-A Combination of Simple Processes

V. Combustion Air Preheating

Summary

Notes

9. Use of Thermodynamic Analysis to Improve Energy Efficiency

Introduction

I. Overall Strategy

II. Reducing Available Energy (Work) Losses

III. Accepting "Inevitable" Inefficiencies

IV. Optimization through Lost Work Analysis

V. Research Guidance

Summary

Problem: Phthalic Anhydride Process Improvement

Notes

10. Thermodynamics and Economics, Part II: Capital-Cost Relationships

Background Information

I. The Entire Plant Energy System is Pertinent

II. Investment Optimization

III. Defining the Limits of Current Technology

IV. Fundamental Process Improvements

Summary

Notes

11. Systematic Design Methods

Introduction

I. Process Synthesis

II. Applications to Cogeneration Systems

III. Thermoeconomics

IV. Systematic Optimization

Thermoeconomics Summary

Notes

12. Guidelines and Recommendations for Improving Process Operations

Introduction

I. Chemical Reactions

II. Separations

III. Heat Transfer

IV. Process Machinery

V. System Interactions and Economics

VI. A Checklist of Energy Conservation Items

VII. Shortcomings of Guidelines

Notes

Index