Endometriosis is a condition that often leads to a variety of symptoms that range from pain complaints to infertility. Endometriosis is also found in women who are asymptomatic. The diagnosis of endometriosis can be made clinically with reliability similar to that of one made surgically. Medical treatment options are effective, as are surgical treatment options. Complications associated with surgery, however, push the balance in favor of medical therapy whenever possible. Based on the body of evidence available at present, women with endometriosis-related complaints should be treated with a first-line medical therapy. If that fails, a second-line medical therapy is warranted under most conditions. Laparoscopic surgery should be reserved for patients in whom second-line medical therapy has failed or is contraindicated by desire to conceive immediately or as soon as possible.