Encyclopedia of Health Economics

Editor-in-Chief:

  • A J. Culyer, University of York, York, UK

The Encyclopedia of Health Economics offers students, researchers and policymakers objective and detailed empirical analysis and clear reviews of current theories and polices. It helps practitioners such as health care managers and planners by providing accessible overviews into the broad field of health economics, including the economics of designing health service finance and delivery and the economics of public and population health. This encyclopedia provides an organized overview of this diverse field, providing one trusted source for up-to-date research and analysis of this highly charged and fast-moving subject area.
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Audience

Students, researchers, and policy makers in health and related fields, in business, government, and academia

 

Book information

  • Published: March 2014
  • Imprint: ELSEVIER
  • ISBN: 978-0-12-375678-7

Reviews

The ... volumes have many strengths. They will be comprehensive, up to date, and linked to web sites with additional information. The papers to be included will be readable and therefore accessible to a wide audience. The plans to have more than one paper on the same subject and to include all schools of thought are especially appealing. The volume has in my view no weaknesses.

Michael Grossman, National Bureau of Economic Research, USA




Table of Contents

Demand for Health and Health Care
Section Editor: Thomas G McGuire, Harvard Medical School, USA
Collective Purchasing of Health Care
Demand Cross Elasticities and ‘Offset Effects’
Demand for Insurance That Nudges Demand
Education and Health: Disentangling Causal Relationships from Associations
Empirical Determinants of Health Care Demand
Medical Decision Making and Demand
Peer Effects, Social Networks, and Healthcare Demand
Physician Management of Demand at the Point of Care
Physician-Induced Demand
Price Elasticity of Demand for Medical Care: The Evidence since the RAND Health Insurance Experiment
Quality Reporting and Demand
Rationing of Demand

Determinants of Health and Ill-Health 
Section Editors: John Cawley, Cornell University, USA and Kosali Simon, Cornell University, USA
Abortion
Addiction
Advertising
Aging: Conditions Early in Life and Health and Mortality at Advanced Ages
Alcohol
Determinants of Mental Health
Economics of Nutrition
Economics of Smoking
Education and Health
Health Effects of Illegal Drug Use
Intergenerational Effects on Health - In Utero and Early Life
Macroeconomy and Health
Peer Effects in Health Behaviors
Pollution and Health
Sex Work and Risky Sex in Developing Countries

Economic Evaluation 
Section Editors: Mark Sculpher, University of York, UK, John Brazier, University of Sheffield, UK
and Anirban Basu, University of Washington, USA
Analysis of Uncertainty in Economic Evaluation
Budget-Impact Analysis
Decision Analysis: Eliciting Experts’ Beliefs to Characterize Uncertainties
Heterogeneity in Decision-Making about Health Interventions
Incorporating Health Inequality Impacts into Cost-Effectiveness Analysis
Infectious Disease Modeling
Policy Responses to Uncertainty in Healthcare Resource Allocation Decision Processes
Problem Structuring for Health Economic Model Development
Quality Assessment in Modeling in Decision Analytic Models for Economic Evaluation
Searching and Reviewing Nonclinical Evidence for Economic Evaluation
Specification and Implementation of Decision Analytic Model Structures for Economic Evaluation of Health Care Technologies
Statistical Issues in Economic Evaluations
Synthesizing Clinical Evidence for Economic Evaluation
Using Economic Evaluation to Support Health System Decisions about the Adoption of New Technologies
Using Health State Utility Values in Cost-Effectiveness Modeling
Using Observational Studies in Economic Evaluation
Value of Information Analysis
Value of Information Methods to Prioritize Research: Opportunities and Challenges for Practical Application
Valuing Informal Care for Economic Evaluation

Efficiency and Equity 
Section Editors : Aki Tsuchiya, University of Sheffield, UK and John Wildman, Newcastle University, UK
Concepts of Efficiency in Health Care
Efficiency and Equity in Health: Philosophical Considerations
Efficiency of Resource Allocation Funding Formulae
Equality of Opportunity in Health
Evaluating Efficiency of a Health Care System in the Developed World
Measuring Health Inequalities Using the Concentration Index Approach
Measuring Vertical Inequity in the Delivery of Healthcare
Need for Health and Need for Health Care
Techniques for Measuring Equality and Equity in Health and Health Care
Theory of System Level Efficiency in Health Care
Welfarism and Extra-Welfarism
What Impact Does Income Inequality Have on Individual Health?

Global Health 
Section Editors: Karen Grépin, New York University, USA and William G. Jack, Georgetown University, USA
Determinants of Health Status in the Developing World
Economics of HIV/AIDS: Transmission, Treatment, and Prevention
Education and Health in Developing Economies
Fertility and Population in Developing Countries: Implications for Public Health in the Twenty-First Century
Health Labor Markets in Developing Countries
Internal Geographical Imbalances: The Role of Human Resources Quality and Quantity
Nutrition, health, and economic performance
Preliminary and Incomplete - Not for Circulation or Citation
Pricing and User Fees
Water Supply and Sanitation

Health and its Value
Section Editor: Erik Nord, Norwegian Institute of Public Health
Cost-Value Analysis
Health and Its Value: Overview
Incorporation of Concerns for Fairness in Economic Evaluation of Health Programs: Overview
Measurement Properties of Valuation Techniques
Multiattribute Utility Instruments and Their Use
Multi-Attribute Utility Instruments: Condition-Specific Versions
Programs: Overview
Quality-Adjusted Life Years
Techniques for Valuing Health States
Time Preference and Discounting
Utilities for Health States: Whom to Ask
Willingness to Pay for Health

Health and the Macroeconomy
Section Editor: Richard Smith, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK
Assessing the Macroeconomic Effect of Infectious Disease Outbreaks
Exploring Economics of Development Assistance in Health
Global Health Initiatives and Financing for Health
Global Public Goods and Health
How International E-Health Impacts Upon National Health Systems
How Medical Value Travel Impacts upon National Health Systems
Impact of Health on Economic Growth - and of Growth on Health?
International Movement of Capital in Health Services
International Trade in Health Services and Health Impacts
International Trade in Health Workers
Macroeconomic Causes and Effects of Noncommunicable Disease: The Case of Diet and Obesity
Macroeconomic Dynamics of Health: Lags and Variability in Mortality, Employment, and Spending
Macroeconomic Effect of HIV/AIDS
Macroeconomic Effect of Noncommunicable Disease: The Case of Mental Health
Macroeconomics of Health and Health Care
Pharmaceuticals and National Health Systems
Relationship Between Emerging Infections, the International Health Regulations, and Macro-Economy

Health Econometrics
Section Editors: John Mullahy, University of Wisconsin, USA and Anirban Basu, University of Washington, USA
Dominance and the Measurement of Inequality in the Health of Populations
Dose of Bayes to Treat Empirical Malaise: A Primer on the Use of Bayesian Methods in Health Economics
Dynamic Models: Econometric Considerations of Time
Empirical Market Models: IO Models Describing Market Structures in Health Economics
Health Econometrics: An Overview
Inference for Health Econometrics: Inference, Model Tests, Diagnostics, Multiple Tests, and Bootstrap
Instrumental Variables: Informing Policy
Instrumental Variables: Methods
Missing Data: Weighting and Imputation
Modeling Cost and Expenditure for Healthcare
Models for Count Data
Models for Discrete/Ordered Outcomes and Choice Models
Models for Durations: A Guide to Empirical Applications in Health Economics
Nonparametric Matching and Propensity Scores
Panel Data and Difference-in Differences Estimation
Spatial Econometrics: Theory and Applications in Health Economics
Survey Sampling and Weighting
Using Structural Equation, Latent Factor and Latent Class Models to Accommodate Heterogeneity

Health Insurance
Section Editor: John A. Nyman, University of Minnesota, USA
Access and Health Insurance
Causal Relationship Between Health Insurance and Health
Comparisons of Health Insurance Systems in Developed Countries
Concerns within the Private Insurance System
Cost Shifting
Health Insurance in Historical Perspective, I: Foundations of Historical Analysis
Health Insurance in Historical Perspective, II: The Rise of Market-Oriented Health Policy and Healthcare
Health Microinsurance Programs in Developing Countries
Health-Insurer Market Power: Theory and Evidence
History of Health Insurance in Developed Countries
History of Health Insurance in the United States
Issues of Mandatory Systems
Long-Term Care Insurance
Managed Care
Medicare
Moral Hazard
Performance of Private Health Insurers in the Commercial Market
Risk Selection and Risk Adjustment
Sample Selection Bias in Health Econometric Models
Social Health Insurance - Theory and Evidence
State Insurance Mandates
Supplementary Private Health Insurance in National Health Insurance Systems
Supplementary Private Insurance in National Systems and the USA
Theory of Demand for and Welfare Implications of Health Insurance
Value-Based Insurance Design

Human Resources
Section Editors: Martin Gaynor, Carnegie Mellon University, USA and Sean Nicholson , Cornell University, USA
Economics of Dentistry
Income Gap across Physician Specialties
Learning by Doing
Market for Professional Nurses in the US
Medical Malpractice, Defensive Medicine, and Physician Supply
Monopsony in Health Labor Markets: Theory, Plausibility, and Evidence
Nurses’ Unions
Occupational Licensing in Health Care
Organizational Economics and Physician Practices
Physician Labor Supply
Physician Market

Markets in Health Care
Section Editors: Pau Olivella, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelon. Spain
and Pedro Pita Barros, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Portugal
Advertising
Comparative Performance Evaluation: Information on Quality
Heterogeneity Across Hospitals
Impact of Competition on the Hospital Sector
Interaction Between a Public and a Duplicate Private Provider of Health Services
Markets in Health Care
Pharmacies
Physicians’ Simultaneous Practice in the Public And Private Sectors
Preferred Provider Market
Primary Care, Gatekeeping, and Incentives
Risk Adjustment as Mechanism Design
Risk Classification and Health Insurance
Risk Equalization and Risk Adjustment, the European Perspective
Specialists
Switching Costs in Competitive Health Insurance Markets
Waiting Times

Pharmaceutical and Medical Equipment Industries
Section Editor: Patricia Danzon, University of Pennsylvania, USA
Biopharmaceutical Pricing and Reimbursement in the USA
Biosimilars
Cross-National Evidence on Use of Radiology
Economic Issues in Diagnostic Imaging
Economics of Biopharmaceutical and Medical Equipment Industries
Economics of Personalized Medicine: Pricing and Reimbursement Policies as a Potential Barrier to Development and Adoption
Effects of Prescription Drug Cost Sharing
Markets with Physician Dispensing
Mergers and Alliances in the Biopharmaceuticals Industry
Patents and Other Incentives for Pharmaceutical Innovation
Patents and Regulatory Exclusivity in the USA
Pharmaceutical Company Strategies and Distribution Systems in Emerging Markets
Pharmaceutical Marketing and Promotion
Pharmaceutical Parallel Trade: Legal, Policy, and Economic Issues
Pharmaceutical Pricing and Reimbursement Regulation in Europe
Regulation of Safety, Efficacy, and .Quality
Research and Development Costs and Productivity in Biopharmaceuticals
Vaccine Economics
Value of Drugs in Practice

Public Health
Section Editors: Richard Cookson, University of York, USA and Marc Suhrcke, University of East Anglia, USA
Economic Evaluation of Public Health Interventions: Methodological Challenges
Economics of Public Health: Overview
Ethics and Social Value Judgments in Public Health
Fetal Origins of Lifetime Health
Infectious Disease Externalities
Pay for Prevention
Preschool Education Programs
Priority Setting in Public Health
Public Choice Analysis of Public Health Priority Setting
Public Health in Resource Poor Settings
Public Health Profession
Unfair Health Inequality

Supply of Health Services
Section Editor: James F Burgess, Boston University School of Public Health, USA
Ambulance and Patient Transport Services
Cost Function Estimates
Economics of Home Health Services
Health Services in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Financing, Payment, and Provision
Healthcare Safety Net in the US
Long-Term Care
Production Functions for Medical Services: History, Interpretation, Estimation, and Other Issues
Understanding Medical Tourism