New Approches for Trace Element AnalysisEdited by
- J.A. Caruso
- K.L. Sutton
- K.L. Ackley, Department of Chemistry, University of Cincinnati, OH 45221-0172, USA
This book provides a comprehensive discussion of the major aspects involved in elemental speciation. Sample preparation, separation techniques, instrumentation and quality assurance are all discussed. In addition, individual chapters are devoted to speciation of environmental samples and speciation of biological, clinical, and nutritional samples. Individual chapters are written by leaders in the field, and the book has been organized so that the reader may learn how to collect a sample and prepare it. Ways to separate and detect analytes of interest, and steps to take to ensure the validity of the measurements are also discussed. This book is unique in its comprehensive treatment of this subject.
For those who have never performed an elemental speciation analysis and for experienced analysts interested in new developments in this ever growing field.
Comprehensive Analytical Chemistry
Published: December 2000
- Introduction (J.A. Caruso, K.L. Ackley, K.L. Sutton). Sample preparation techniques for elemental speciation studies (J. Szpunar, R. Łobinski). Introduction. Sample collection, pretreatment and storage. Sample handling prior to GC chromatographic analysis. Handling of biomaterials prior to HPLC. Conclusions - trends and perspectives. References. The use of biological substrates for preconcentration and element speciation (Y. Madrid, C. Cámara). Introduction. Accumulation mechanisms. Experimental accumulation procedures. Main analytical application of biological substrates. References. Liquid chromatographic techniques for trace element speciation analysis (E Blanco Gonzáles, A. Sanz-Medel). Introduction. The tools of the trade. Liquid chromatography as the separation techniques in trace element speciation analysis. Interfacing liquid chromatography to atomic spectrometry. Applications to particular trace elements. References. Gas chromatographic and supercritical fluid chromatographic techniques for elemental speciation (P.C. Uden). Atomic plasma emission gas chromatographic detectors (AED). Plasma interfacing with Capillary GC. Analytical information and speciation by GC-AED. Plasma emission detectors for supercritical fluid chromatography. Atomic plasma mass spectral gas chromatographic detectors. The future of atomic emission chromatographic detection. References. Capillary electrophoresis for elemental speciation studies (J.W. Olesik). Introduction. Principles and instruments for elemental speciation using capillary electrophoresis. Detectors for elemental speciation by CE. Applications of capillary electrophoresis for elemental speciation. Conclusions: advantages and limitations of capillary electrophoresis for elemental speciation. References. Nebulizer sample introduction for HPLC ICP-MS and CE ICP-MS (C. B'Hymer, J.A. Caruso). Introduction. High performance liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Capillary electrophoresis inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Conclusions and future trends. References. The use of ICP-AES as a detector for elemental speciation studies (L. Ebdon, A. Fisher). Introduction. Liquid chromatography. Capillary zone electrophoresis. Gas chromatography. Supercritical fluid chromatography. Flow injection analysis. Interferences. Conclusions. References. The use of ICP-MS as a detector for elemental speciation studies (K.L. Ackley et al.). Introduction. Components of an ICPMS. Elements of interest. Interferences. Improving sample transport efficiency. Coupling chromatographic techniques with ICPMS. Alternative mass analyzers. Conclusion. References. Application of isotope dilution in elemental speciation: speciated isotope dilution mass spectrometry (SIDMS) (D. Huo, H.M. Kingston, B. Larget). Introduction. Conventional isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS). Isotope dilution mass spectrometry in elemental speciation. Relationship between SIDMS and IDMS. Preparation and calibration of isotopic spikes. Measurement of isotope ratios in species. Error propagation in SIDMS. Standard SIDMS method, EPA method 6800. Demonstration and application of SIDMS in correcting for species transformation. Application of SIDMS in correcting for incomplete species separation. Application of SIDMS as a diagnostic tool in identifying species altering procedures in more conventional speciation methods. Application of SIDMS in the analysis of challenging and difficult environmental solid samples. References. Plasma sources as alternatives to the atmospheric pressure ICP for speciation studies (E.H. Evans, G. O'Connor). Introduction. Microwave plasmas. Low pressure microwave plasmas. Low pressure inductively coupled plasmas. Glow discharge plasmas. On-column micro-plasma. References. Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (D.A. Barnett, R. Handy, G. Horlick). Electrospray as an elemental ion source. ESI operating principles. ESI-MS hardware. Gas phase chemistry of metallic species. Quantitative analysis applications. Conclusions. References. Trends in speciation analysis for routine and new environmental issues (O.F.X. Donard et al.). Introduction. Determination of redox species (AS, Cr, Al, Se). Determination of organometallic species. Multielement-multispecies determination using plasma source detection. New trends for the detection mode for organometal species. Mass spectrometric detection and prospectives. References. Speciation analysis of biological, clinical and nutritional samples using plasma spectrometry (K.L. Sutton, D.T. Heitkemper). Introduction. Sample collection, storage, preparation and pretreatment. Example applications. Conclusions. References. Certified reference materials: a tool for quality control of elemental speciation analysis (Ph. Quevauviller). Introduction. Ways to achieve accuracy in elemental speciation studies. Sources of errors in speciation analysis. Calibration. The interlaboratory approach. Certified reference materials - definitions. Requirements for the preparation of reference materials. Procedures to certify and assign values. Evaluation of results and data collection. Availability of CRM's for quality control of speciation analysis. Conclusions. References. Subject Index.