Electrical Engineering: Know It All


  • Clive Maxfield, Engineer, TechBytes, and Editor of PLDesignline.com EDA industry consultant, EDN columnist, and Embedded Systems Guru
  • John Bird, BSc (Hons), CEng, CMath, CSci, FIET, MIEE, FIIE, FIMA, FCollT, Royal Naval School of Marine Engineering, HMS Sultan, Gosport; formerly University of Portsmouth and Highbury College, UK
  • Tim Williams, Elmac Services, Wareham, UK
  • Walt Kester, Analog Devices technical staff
  • Dan Bensky, RF/Wireless Designer & Consultant

The Newnes Know It All Series takes the best of what our authors have written to create hard-working desk references that will be an engineer's first port of call for key information, design techniques and rules of thumb. Guaranteed not to gather dust on a shelf!Electrical engineers need to master a wide area of topics to excel. The Electrical Engineering Know It All covers every angle including Real-World Signals and Systems, Electromagnetics, and Power systems.
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Electrical and Electronics Engineers; Field Application Engineers, New Graduates


Book information

  • Published: August 2008
  • Imprint: NEWNES
  • ISBN: 978-1-85617-528-9

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 An Introduction to Electric Circuits1.1 SI units1.2 Charge1.3 Force1.4 Work1.5 Power1.6 Electrical potential and e.m.f.1.7 Resistance and conductance1.8 Electrical power and energy1.9 Summary of terms, units and their symbols1.10 Standard symbols for electrical components1.11 Electric current and quantity of electricity1.12 Potential difference and resistance1.13 Basic electrical measuring instruments1.14 Linear and non-linear devices1.15 Ohm’s law1.16 Multiples and sub-multiples1.17 Conductors and insulators1.18 Electrical power and energy1.19 Main effects of electric currentChapter 2 Resistance and Resistivity2.1 Resistance and resistivity2.2 Temperature coefficient of resistanceChapter 3 Series and parallel networks3.1 Series circuits3.2 Potential divider3.3 Parallel networks3.4 Current division3.5 Relative and absolute voltagesChapter 4 Capacitors and Inductors4.1 Introduction to capacitors4.2 Electrostatic field4.3 Electric field strength4.4 Capacitance4.5 Capacitors4.6 Electric flux density4.7 Permittivity4.8 The parallel plate capacitor4.9 Capacitors connected in parallel and series4.10 Dielectric strength4.11 Energy stored4.12 Practical types of capacitor4.13 Inductance4.14 Inductors4.15 Energy storedChapter 5 D.c. circuit theory5.1 Introduction5.2 Kirchhoff’s laws5.3 The superposition theorem5.4 General d.c. circuit theory5.5 Thévenin’s theorem5.6 Constant-current source5.7 Norton’s theorem5.8 Thévenin and Norton equivalent networksChapter 6 Alternating voltages and currents6.1 The a.c. generator6.2 Waveforms6.3 A.c. values6.4 The equation of a sinusoidal waveform6.5 Combination of waveforms6.6 RectificationChapter 7 Complex Numbers7.1 Introduction7.2 Operations involving Cartesian complex numbers7.3 Complex equations7.4 The polar form of a complex number7.5 Introduction7.6 Series a.c. circuits7.7 Introduction7.8 Admittance, conductance and susceptance7.9 Parallel a.c. networksChapter 8 Transients and Laplace transforms8.1 Introduction8.2 Response of R–C series circuit to a step input8.3 Response of R-L series circuit to a step input8.4 L–R–C series circuit response8.5 Introduction to Laplace transforms8.6 Inverse Laplace transforms and the solution of differential equationsChapter 9 Frequency Domain Circuit Analysis9.1 Introduction9.2 Sinusoidal AC electrical analysis9.3 Generalised frequency domain analysis9.4 BibliographyChapter 10 Digital Electronincs10.1 Semiconductors10.2 Semiconductor Diodes10.3 Bipolar Junction Transistors10.4 Metal-Oxide Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors10.5 The Transistor as a Switch10.6 Gallium Arsenide Semiconductors10.7 Light-Emitting Diodes10.8 BUF and NOT Functions10.9 AND, OR, and XOR Functions10.10 NAND, NOR, and XNOR Functions10.11 Not a Lot10.12 Functions versus Gates10.13 NOT and BUF Gates10.14 NAND and AND Gates10.15 NOR and OR Gates10.16 XNOR and XOR Gates10.17 Pass-transistor Logic10.18 Combining a Single Variable with Logic 0 or Logic 110.19 The Idempotent Rules10.20 The Complementary Rules10.21 The Involution Rule10.22 The Commutative Rules10.23 The Associative Rules10.24 Precedence of Operators10.25 The First Distributive Rule10.26 The Second Distributive Rule10.27 The Simplification Rules10.28 DeMorgan Transformations10.29 Minterms and Maxterms10.30 Sum-of-Products and Product-of-Sums10.31 Canonical Forms10.32 Karnaugh Maps10.33 Minimization Using Karnaugh Maps10.34 Grouping Minterms10.35 Incompletely Specified Functions10.36 Populating Maps Using 0s Versus 1s10.37 Scalar versus Vector Notation10.38 Equality Comparators10.39 Multiplexers10.40 Decoders10.41 Tri-State Functions10.42 Combinational versus Sequential Functions10.43 RS Latches10.44 D-Type Latches10.45 D-Type Flip-flops10.46 JK and T Flip-flops10.47 Shift Registers10.48 Counters10.49 Setup and Hold Times10.50 Brick by Brick10.51 State Diagrams10.52 State Tables10.53 State Machines10.54 State Assignment10.55 Don’t Care States, Unused States, and Latch-Up ConditionsChapter 11 Analog Electronics11.1 Operational Amplifiers Defined11.2 Symbols and connections11.3 Operational amplifier parameters11.4 Operational amplifier characteristics11.5 Operational amplifier applications11.6 Gain and bandwidth11.7 Inverting amplifier with feedback11.8 Operational amplifier circuits11.9 Departures from the Ideal11.10 The ideal op-amp11.11 The practical op-amp11.12 Comparators11.13 Voltage referencesChapter 12 Circuit simulation12.1 Types of analysis12.2 Netlists and component models12.3 Logic simulation12.4 Practical investigationChapter 13 Interfacing13.1 Mixing analogue and digital13.2 Generating digital levels from analogue inputs13.3 Classic data interface standards13.4 High performance data interface standardsChapter 14 Microcontrollers and Microprocessors14.1 Microprocessor systems14.2 Single-chip microcomputers14.3 Microcontrollers14.4 PIC microcontrollers14.5 Programmed logic devices14.6 Programmable logic controllers14.7 Microprocessor systems14.8 Data representation14.9 Data types 14.10 Data storage14.11 The microprocessor14.12 Microprocessor operation14.13 A microcontroller system14.14 Practical investigation14.15 Symbols introduced in this chapterChapter 15 Power Electronics15.1. Switchgear15.2. Surge Suppression15.3. Conductors15.4. Capacitors15.5. Resistors15.6. Fuses15.7. Supply Voltages15.8. Enclosures15.9. Hipot, Corona, and BIL15.10. Spacings15.11. Metal Oxide Varistors15.12. Protective Relays15.13. Symmetrical Components15.14. Per Unit Constants15.15. Circuit Simulation15.16. Simulation Software15.17. Basics15.18. Amplitude Responses15.19. Phase Responses15.20. PID Regulators15.21. Nested Control Loops15.22 General15.23 Input and output parameters15.24 Abnormal conditions15.25 Mechanical requirements15.26 BatteriesChapter 16 Signals and Signal Processing16.1 Origins of Real-World Signals and Their Units of Measurement16.2 Reasons for Processing Real-World Signals16.3 Generation of Real-World Signals16.4 Methods and Technologies Available for Processing Real-World Signals16.5 Analog Versus Digital Signal Processing16.6 A Practical Example16.7 ReferencesChapter 17 Filter Design17.1 Introduction17.2 Passive filters17.3 Active filters17.4 First-order filters17.5 Design of first-order filters17.6 Second-order filters17.7 Using the transfer function17.8 Using normalized tables17.9 Using identical components17.10 Second-order high-pass filters17.11 Additional problems17.12 Bandpass filters17.13 Additional problems17.14 Switched capacitor filter17.15 Monolithic switched capacitor filter17.16 The notch filter17.17 Choosing components for filters17.18 Testing filter response17.19 Fast Fourier Transforms17.20 The Fast Fourier Transform17.21 FFT Hardware Implementation and Benchmarks17.22 DSP Requirements for Real-Time FFT Applications17.23 Spectral Leakage and Windowing17.24 References17.25 Digital Filters17.26 Finite Impulse Response (FIR) Filters17.27 FIR Filter Implementation in DSP Hardware Using Circular Buffering17.28 Designing FIR Filters17.29 FIR Filter Design Using the Windowed-Sinc Method17.30 FIR Filter Design Using the Fourier Series Method with Windowing17.31 FIR Filter Design Using the Frequency Sampling Method17.32 FIR Filter Design Using the Parks-McClellan Program17.33 Designing High-Pass, Band-Pass, and Band-Stop Filters Based on Low-Pass Filter Design17.34 Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) Filters17.35 IIR Filter Design Techniques17.36 Summary: FIR Versus IIR Filters17.37 Multirate Filters17.38 Adaptive Filters17.39 ReferencesChapter 18 Control and Instrumentation Systems18.1 Introduction18.2 Systems 18.3 Control systems models18.4 Measurement elements18.5 Signal processing18.6 Correction elements18.7 Control systems18.8 Introduction18.9 Gain18.10 Dynamic systems18.11 Differential equations18.12 Transfer function18.13 System transfer functions18.14 Sensitivity18.15 Block manipulation18.16 Multiple inputsChapter 19 Communications Systems19.1 Introduction19.2 Analogue modulation techniques19.3 The balanced modulator/demodulator19.4 Frequency modulation and demodulation19.5 FM modulators19.6 FM demodulators19.7 Digital modulation techniques19.8 Introduction to Information Theory19.9 Probability19.9 Information Theory19.10 Summary19.11 Applications and Technologies19.12 Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN)19.13 Bluetooth19.14 Zigbee19.15 Conflict and Compatibility19.16 Ultra-wideband Technology19.17 Summary19.18 ReferencesChapter 20 Principles of Electromagnetics20.1 THE NEED FOR ELECTROMAGNETICS20.2 THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM20.3 ELECTRICAL LENGTH20.4 THE FINITE SPEED OF LIGHT20.5 ELECTRONICS20.6 ANALOG AND DIGITAL SIGNALS20.7 RF TECHNIQUES20.8 MICROWAVE TECHNIQUES20.9 INFRARED AND THE ELECTRONIC SPEED LIMIT20.10 VISIBLE LIGHT AND BEYOND20.11 LASERS AND PHOTONICS20.12 SUMMARY20.13 BIBLIOGRAPHY: GENERAL TOPICS FOR CHAPTER 2020.14 BIBLIOGRAPHY: STATE-OF-THE-ART ELECTRONICS20.15 Web resources20.16 THE ELECTRIC FORCE FIELD20.17 OTHER TYPES OF FIELDS20.18 VOLTAGE AND POTENTIAL ENERGY20.19 CHARGES IN METALS20.20 THE DEFINITION OF RESISTANCE20.21 ELECTRONS AND HOLES20.22 ELECTROSTATIC INDUCTION AND CAPACITANCE20.23 INSULATORS (DIELECTRICS)20.24 STATIC ELECTRICITY AND LIGHTNING20.24 THE BATTERY REVISITED20.25 ELECTRIC FIELD EXAMPLES20.26 CONDUCTIVITY AND PERMITTIVITY OFCOMMON MATERIALS20.27 BIBLIOGRAPHY: ELECTRIC FIELDS AND CONDUCTION20.28 BIBLIOGRAPHY: STATIC ELECTRICITY AND LIGHTNING20.29 Web ResourcesChapter 21 MAGNETIC FIELDS21.1 MOVING CHARGES: SOURCE OF ALL MAGNETIC FIELDS21.2 MAGNETIC DIPOLES21.3 EFFECTS OF THE MAGNETIC FIELD21.4 THE VECTOR MAGNETIC POTENTIAL AND POTENTIAL MOMENTUM21.5 MAGNETIC MATERIALS21.6 MAGNETISM AND QUANTUM PHYSICS21.7 BIBLIOGRAPHYChapter 22 Electromagnetic Transients and EMI22.1. Line Disturbances22.2. Circuit Transients22.3. Electromagnetic InterferenceChapter 23 Traveling Wave Effects23.1. Basics23.2. Transient Effects23.3. Mitigating MeasuresChapter 24 Transformers24.1 Voltage and turns ratio24.2 Practical investigationChapter 25 Electromagnetic Machines25.1 Energy conversion25.2 Electromagnetic devices25.3 Industrial rotary and linear motorsChapter 26 Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC)26.1 Introduction26.2 Common terms26.3 The EMC model26.4 EMC requirements26.5 Product design26.6 Device selection26.7 Printed circuit boards26.8 Interfaces26.9 Power supplies and power-line filters26.10 Signal line filters26.11 Enclosure design26.12 Interface cable connections26.13 Golden rules for effective design for EMC26.14 System design26.15 Buildings26.16 Conformity assessment26.17 EMC testing and measurements26.18 Management plans26.19 ReferencesChapter 27 Power Generation27.1 Introduction27.2 Airgap flux and open-circuit e.m.f.1,6,7,8,11,17,19,2327.3 Alternating current windings27.4 Coils and insulation27.5 Temperature rise27.6 Output equation27.7 Armature reaction27.8 Reactances and time constants11, 83, 84, 86–9127.9 Steady-state operation27.10 Synchronising27.11 Operating charts27.12 On-load excitation27.13 Sudden three-phase short circuit 6,7,11,1927.14 Excitation systems27.15 Turbogenerators92–13727.16 Generator-transformer connection27.17 Hydrogenerators27.18 Salient-pole generators other than hydrogenerators27.19 Synchronous compensators27.20 Induction generators157–16427.21 Standards27.22 Introduction27.23 Cells and batteries27.24 Primary cells27.25 Secondary cells and batteries27.26 Battery applications27.27 Acknowledgements27.28 ReferencesChapter 28 Power Transmission and Distribution28.1 General28.2 Conductors and earth wires28.3 Conductor fittings28.4 Electrical characteristics28.5 Insulators28.6 Supports28.7 Lightning28.8 Loadings28.9 Introduction28.10 Magnetic circuit28.11 Windings and insulation28.12 Connections28.13 Three-winding transformers28.14 Quadrature booster transformers28.15 On-load tap changing28.16 Cooling28.17 Fittings33.18 Parallel operation28.19 Auto-transformers28.20 Special types28.21 Circuit-switching devices28.22 Materials28.23 Primary-circuit-protection devices28.24 LV switchgear28.25 HV secondary distribution switchgear28.26 HV primary distribution switchgear28.27 HV transmission switchgear28.28 Generator switchgear28.29 Switching conditions28.30 Introduction28.31 Basic concepts of transient analysis28.32 Protection of system and equipment against transient overvoltage28.33 ReferencesChapter 29 Power Quality29.1 Introduction29.2 Definition of power quality terms29.3 Sources of problems29.4 Effects of power quality problems29.5 Measuring power quality29.6 Amelioration of power quality problems29.7 Power quality codes and standards29.8 BibliographyAppendix A General referenceA.1 Standard electrical quantities —their symbols and unitsAppendix BB.1 Differential equations