Electric and Hybrid Vehicles book cover

Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

Power Sources, Models, Sustainability, Infrastructure and the Market

Electric and Hybrid Vehicles: Power Sources, Models, Sustainability, Infrastructure and the Market reviews the performance, cost, safety, and sustainability of battery systems for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and electric vehicles (EVs), including nickel-metal hydride batteries and Li-ion batteries. Throughout this book, especially in the first chapters, alternative vehicles with different power trains are compared in terms of lifetime cost, fuel consumption, and environmental impact. The emissions of greenhouse gases are particularly dealt with. The improvement of the battery, or fuel cell, performance and governmental incentives will play a fundamental role in determining how far and how substantial alternative vehicles will penetrate into the market. An adequate recharging infrastructure is of paramount importance for the diffusion of vehicles powered by batteries and fuel cells, as it may contribute to overcome the so-called range anxiety."" Thus, proposed battery charging techniques are summarized and hydrogen refueling stations are described. The final chapter reviews the state of the art of the current models of hybrid and electric vehicles along with the powertrain solutions adopted by the major automakers.

Audience

An invaluable resource for electrochemical engineers and battery and fuel cell experts working in research institutions, universities and industries worldwide. Likely to be of secondary interest to scientists and engineers working in stand-alone (stationary) energy storage, communications, medical and defense applications; transportation and environmental economists; governmental policymakers; and managers at automobile manufacturers.

Hardbound, 670 Pages

Published: July 2010

Imprint: Elsevier

ISBN: 978-0-444-53565-8

Contents


  • Contributors

    Preface

    1. Economic and Environmental Comparison of Conventional and Alternative Vehicle Options

        1. Introduction

        2. Analysis

        3. Results and discussion

        4. Conclusions

        Acknowledgement

        Nomenclature

        References

    2. Lifetime Cost of Battery, Fuel-Cell, and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

        1. Introduction

        2. Lifetime cost of battery-electric vehicles

        3. Lifetime cost of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

        4. Lifetime cost of fuel-cell electric vehicles

        5. Discussion

        Acknowledgments

        References

    3. Relative Fuel Economy Potential of Intelligent, Hybrid and Intelligent-Hybrid Passenger Vehicles

        1. Introduction

        2. Vehicle models for simulation studies

        3. Velocity scheduling using traffic preview

        4. Hybrid vehicles with telematics

        5. Optimal management of hybrid vehicles with telematics

        6. Conclusions and future opportunities

        Acknowledgements

        Nomenclature

        References

    4. Cost-Effective Vehicle and Fuel Technology Choices in a Carbon-Constrained World: Insights from Global Energy Systems Modeling

        1. Introduction

        2. Method

        3. Results

        4. Discussion and conclusions

        Acknowledgments

        References

    5. Expected Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions by Battery, Fuel Cell, and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

        1. Introduction

        2. Background and previous research

        3. Formation of GHG emissions from EV fuel cycles

        4. Estimates of GHG emissions from EV fuel cycles

        5. Magnitude of possible GHG reductions-scaling up the EV industry

        6. Key uncertainties and areas for further research

        7. Conclusions

        Acknowledgments

        References

        Appendix

    6. Analysis of Design Tradeoffs for Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles

        1. Introduction

        2. Methods for studying PHEV design

        3. PHEV subsystem description and tradeoff analysis

        4. Case studies

        5. Concluding remarks

        References

    7. Evaluation of Energy Consumption, Emissions, and Costs of Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles

        1. Introduction

        2. Factors affecting plug-in hybrid fuel consumption and emissions

        3. SAE J1711 recommended practice

        4. Methodology

        5. United States, Europe, and Japan analysis

        6. Conclusions

        Acknowledgments

        Nomenclature

        References

    8. Improving Petroleum Displacement Potential of PHEVs Using Enhanced Charging Scenarios

        1. Introduction

        2. Approach

        3. Results

        4. Conclusions

        Acknowledgments

        References

    9. Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles, Battery Electric Vehicles, and their Impact on Energy Storage Technologies: An Overview

        1. Introduction

        2. The boundary conditions for automotive technology development

        3. Fuel cell electric and battery electric vehicles - two competing concepts?

        4. Fuel cell electric vehicles

        5. Extended-range electric vehicles

        6. Infrastructure issues

        7. Conclusions

        Acknowledgements

        List of abbreviations

        References

    10. On the Road Performance Simulation of Battery, Hydrogen, and Hybrid Cars

        1. Introduction

        2. Simulation of efficient internal combustion vehicle

        3. Simulation of fuel cell vehicle

        4. Simulation of battery vehicle

        5. Simulation of hybrid vehicles

        6. Optimization of hybrid configuration

        7. Conclusions

        References

        Appendix: Performance Measures

    11. Life Cycle Assessment of Hydrogen Fuel Cell and Gasoline Vehicles

        1. Introduction

        2. Methodology

        3. Scope

        4. Limitations

        5. Results and discussion

        6. Concluding remarks

        References

    12. DOE’s National Fuel Cell Vehicle Learning Demonstration Project - NREL’s Data Analysis Results

        1. Introduction

        2. Approach and industry partners

        3. Demonstration logistics

        4. Results

        5. Concluding remarks

        Acknowledgments

        Definitions, Acronyms, Abbreviations

        References

    13. Battery Requirements for HEVs, PHEVs, and EVs: An Overview

        1. Introduction

        2. General requirements

        3. Specific requirements and examples

        4. Fuel cell hybrid vehicles

        5. Summary of the different Li ion chemistries existing at present, and to be used in HEVs, PHEVs, or EVs

        6. The future

        References

    14. Battery Environmental Analysis

        1. Introduction

        2. Quantitative analyses: LCA

        3. Model

        4. Impact of the different battery technologies

        5. Electric vehicles traction batteries

        6. Qualitative analysis

        References

    15. A Roadmap to Understand Battery Performance in Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Operation

        1. Introduction

        2. Field test data collection and analysis

        3. Laboratory battery tests

        4. Single cell and battery pack modeling

        5. Vehicle drivetrain platform modeling

        6. Concluding remarks

        Acknowledgement

        References

    16. Batteries for PHEVs: Comparing Goals and the State of Technology

        1. Introduction

        2. Basic PHEV design concepts

        3. PHEV battery goals

        4. Battery technologies

        5. Li-ion battery prospects

        6. What PHEV could be made with near-term battery technologies?

        7. Discussion and conclusion

        Acknowledgements

        References

    17. Battery Size and Capacity Use in Hybrid and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

        1. Introduction

        2. Defining the maximum pulse-power capability

        3. A simple model for battery size and capacity use

        4. A combined model for battery size and capacity use

        5. Conclusions

        Acknowledgements

        Terminology

        References

    18. Safety of Lithium-Ion Batteries for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

        1. Introduction

        2. Li-ion flavors

        3. Li-ion cell failures

        4. Why do Li-ion cells go into thermal runaway?

        5. Typical safety circuits

        6. HEV battery safety standards

        7. System specific safety evaluation

        8. Voltage introduced safety considerations

        9. Summary

        Acknowledgments

        References

    19. Management of Batteries for Electric Traction Vehicles

        1. Introduction

        2. Application introduction

        3. Battery management systems

        4. Battery management system examples

        5. Conclusion

        Acknowledgments

        Glossary

        References

    20. Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure

        1. Introduction

        2. Charging power levels

        3. Charging modes for conductive charging

        4. Communication issues

        5. Accessories for charging

        6. “Fast” charging

        7. Inductive charging

        8. Conclusions

        References

    21. Market Prospects of Electric Passenger Vehicles

        1. Introduction

        2. Technical aspects

        3. Relevant stakeholders and outline of calculation model

        4. Scenario calculations

        5. Conclusions and future opportunities

        Nomenclature

        References

    22. Automakers’ Powertrain Options for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles

        1. Introduction

        2. Hybrid electric vehicles

        3. Battery electric vehicles

        4. Fuel cell hydrogen electric vehicles

        5. Multi-purpose electrified traction platforms and architectures, and auto innovation design

        6. Conclusions

    Appendix

        1. Selected references for topics not specifically treated in this book (to January 2010)

        2. Further reading on recharging networks and market issues (to January 2010)

    Index




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