Dilute Nitride Semiconductors book cover

Dilute Nitride Semiconductors

* This book contains full account of the advances made in the dilute nitrides, providing an excellent starting point for workers entering the field.

* It gives the reader easier access and better evaluation of future trends, Conveying important results and current ideas

* Includes a generous list of references at the end of each chapter, providing a useful reference to the III-V-N based semiconductors research community.

The high speed lasers operating at wavelength of 1.3 µm and 1.55 µm are very important light sources in optical communications since the optical fiber used as a transport media of light has dispersion and attenuation minima, respectively, at these wavelengths. These long wavelengths are exclusively made of InP-based material InGaAsP/InP. However, there are several problems with this material system. Therefore, there has been considerable effort for many years to fabricate long wavelength laser structures on other substrates, especially GaAs. The manufacturing costs of GaAs-based components are lower and the processing techniques are well developed. In 1996 a novel quaternary material GaInAsN was proposed which could avoid several problems with the existing technology of long wavelength lasers.

In this book, several leaders in the field of dilute nitrides will cover the growth and processing, experimental characterization, theoretical understanding, and device design and fabrication of this recently developed class of semiconductor alloys. They will review their current status of research and development.

Dilute Nitrides (III-N-V) Semiconductors: Physics and Technology organises the most current available data, providing a ready source of information on a wide range of topics, making this book essential reading for all post graduate students, researchers and practitioners in the fields of Semiconductors and Optoelectronics

Audience
Post-graduate students, researchers in the field of semiconductors and Optoelectronics and electronic devices and semiconductor manufacturers,

Hardbound, 640 Pages

Published: December 2004

Imprint: Elsevier

ISBN: 978-0-08-044502-1

Contents

  • Contents
    Preface v
    CHAPTER 1
    MBE GROWTH AND CHARACTERIZATION OF LONG WAVELENGTH DILUTE NITRIDE III–V ALLOYS
    1.1. Introduction 1.2. MBE Growth of Dilute III–V Nitrides 1.3. Dilute Nitride Characterization 1.4. Energy Band and Carrier Transport Properties 1.5. Annealing and N–In Nearest Neighbor Effects 1.6. SummaryAcknowledgements References

    CHAPTER 2
    EPITAXIAL GROWTH OF DILUTE NITRIDES BY METAL-ORGANIC VAPOUR PHASE EPITAXY
    2.1. Introduction 2.2. Epitaxial Growth of GaInAsN-based Structures 2.3. Long Wavelength GaAs-based Laser Performances 2.4. Conclusion Acknowledgements References

    CHAPTER 3
    THE CHEMICAL BEAM EPITAXY OF DILUTE NITRIDE ALLOYSEMICONDUCTORS
    3.1. Introduction to Dilute Nitride Semiconductors 3.2. The Chemical Beam Epitaxial/Metalorganic Molecular Beam Epitaxial(CBE/MOMBE) Growth Process 3.3. CBE of Dilute Nitride Semiconductors 3.4. Fundamental Studies of GaNx As (12 x ) Band Structure3.5. The Compositions and Properties of Dilute Nitrides Grown by CBE 3.6. CBE-grown Dilute Nitride Devices 3.7. The Potential for Production CBE of Dilute Nitrides3.8. Conclusions Acknowledgements References

    CHAPTER 4
    MOMBE GROWTH AND CHARACTERIZATION OF III–V-NCOMPOUNDS AND APPLICATION TO InAs QUANTUM DOTS
    4.1. Introduction 4.2. MOMBE Growth and Characterization of GaAsN 4.3. Relation of In and N Incorporations in the Growth of GaInNAs 4.4. Growth and Characterization of GaAsNSe New Alloy 4.5. Application of GaAsN to InAs Quantum Dots 4.6. Summary Acknowledgements References

    CHAPTER 5
    RECENT PROGRESS IN DILUTE NITRIDE QUANTUM DOTS
    5.1. Self-organized Quantum Dots 5.2. Dilute Nitride Quantum Dots 5.3. Recent Experimental Progress in GaInNAS QDS 5.4. Other Kinds of Dilute Nitride QDs 5.5. Summary and Future Challenges in Dilute Nitride QDs Acknowledgements References

    CHAPTER 6
    PHYSICS OF ISOELECTRONIC DOPANTS IN GaAs
    6.1. Nitrogen Isoelectronic Impurities 6.2. The Failure of the Virtual Crystal Approximation 6.3. Prevalent Theoretical Models on Dilute Nitrides 6.4. Electroreflectance Study of GaAsN 6.5. Resonant Raman Scattering Study of Conduction Band States 6.6. Compatibility with other Experimental Results 6.7. A Complementary Alloy: GaAsBi 6.8. Summary 6.9. Conclusion References

    CHAPTER 7
    MEASUREMENT OF CARRIER LOCALIZATION DEGREE, ELECTRON EFFECTIVE MASS, AND EXCITON SIZE IN In x Ga1 2 x As 1 2 y N y Alloys
    7.1. Introduction 7.2. Experimental 7.3. Single Carrier Localization in In x Ga1 2 x As 1 2 y N y 7.4. Measurement of the Electron Effective Mass and Exciton Wave function Size 7.5. Conclusions Acknowledgements References

    CHAPTER 8
    PROBING THE “UNUSUAL” BAND STRUCTURE OF DILUTE Ga(AsN)QUANTUM WELLS BY MAGNETO-TUNNELLING SPECTROSCOPY AND OTHER TECHNIQUES
    8.1. Introduction 8.2. Resonant Tunnelling Diodes Based on Dilute Nitrides 8.3. Magneto-Tunnelling Spectroscopy to Probe the Conduction Band Structure of Dilute Nitrides 8.4. Electronic Properties: From the Very Dilute Regime ( , 0.1%) to the Dilute Regime 8.5. Conduction in Dilute Nitrides and Future Prospects 8.6. Summary and Conclusions Acknowledgements References

    CHAPTER 9
    PHOTO- AND ELECTRO-REFLECTANCE OF III–V-N COMPOUNDS AND LOW DIMENSIONAL STRUCTURES
    9.1. Principles of Electromodulation in Electro- and Photo-reflectance Spectroscopy 9.2. Band Structure of (Ga,In)(As,Sb,N) Bulk-like Layers 9.3. (Ga,In)(As,Sb,N)-Based Quantum Well Structures 9.4. The Influence of Post-grown Annealing on GaInNAs Structures 9.5. Photoreflectance Investigation of the Exciton Binding Energy 9.6. Manifestation of the Carrier Localization Effect in Photoreflectance Spectroscopy References

    CHAPTER 10
    BAND ANTICROSSING AND RELATED ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE IN III-N-V ALLOYS
    10.1. Introduction 10.2. Band Anticrossing Model 10.3. Experimental Evidence of Band Splitting and Anticrossing Characteristics10.4. Novel Electronic and Transport Properties of III-N-V Alloys 10.5. Conclusions AcknowledgementsReferences

    CHAPTER 11
    A TIGHT-BINDING BASED ANALYSIS OF THE BAND ANTI-CROSSING MODEL AND ITS APPLICATION IN Ga(In)NAs ALLOYS
    11.1. Introduction 11.2. Nitrogen Resonant States in Ordered GaNx As 1 2 x Structures 11.3. Analytical Model for Quantum Well Confined State Energies and Dispersion 11.4. Influence of Disorder on Nitrogen Resonant States, E 2 and E þ in GaNx As 1 2 x 11.5. Conduction Band Structure and Effective Mass in Disordered GaNx As 1 2 x 11.6. Alloy Scattering and Mobility in Dilute Nitride Alloys 11.7. Conclusions Acknowledgements References

    CHAPTER 12
    ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE EVOLUTION OF DILUTEIII–V NITRIDE ALLOYS
    12.1. Introduction 12.2. Phenomenology of Dilute III–V Nitrides 12.3. Empirical Pseudopotential Methodology 12.4. Electronic Structure Evolution of Dilute Nitrides 12.5. Summary of Electronic Structure Evolution 12.6. Phenomenology of Dilute Nitride Quaternaries 12.7. Future Challenges of New Nitride Materials 12.8. Conclusions Acknowledgements References

    CHAPTER 13
    THEORY OF NITROGEN–HYDROGEN COMPLEXES IN N-CONTAINING III–V ALLOYS
    13.1. Introduction 13.2. Theoretical Methods 13.3. N–H Complexes in GaAsN Alloys13.4. Intrinsic N and H Impurities in GaP AND GaAs 13.5. N–H Complexes in InGaAsN 13.6. N–H Complexes in GaPN 13.7. Conclusions References

    CHAPTER 14
    DISLOCATION-FREE III–V-N ALLOY LAYERS ON Si SUBSTRATES AND THEIR DEVICE APPLICATIONS
    14.1. Introduction 14.2. Dislocation Generation Mechanisms in Lattice-mismatched Heteroepitaxy 14.3. Lattice-matched Heteroepitaxy of III–V-N Alloys on III–V Compound Semiconductors 14.4. Growth of Dislocation-free III–V-N Alloy Layers on Si Substrates 14.5. Device Applications 14.6. Summary Acknowledgements References

    CHAPTER 15
    GaNAsSb ALLOY AND ITS POTENTIAL FOR DEVICE APPLICATIONS
    15.1. Introduction 15.2. MBE of the GaNAsSb Alloy 15.3. Bands 15.4. Annealing Effect 15.5. Quinary Alloy 15.6. Long-wavelength GaAs-based Laser 15.7. HBT 15.8. Conclusions Acknowledgements References

    CHAPTER 16
    A COMPARATIVE LOOK AT 1.3 m m InGaAsN-BASED VCSELs FOR FIBER-OPTICAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
    16.1. Introduction: 0.85 m m versus 1.3 m m VCSELs 16.2. Approaches to Achieve 1.3 m m VCSELs 16.3. 1.3 m m VCSELs Based on InGaAsN 16.4. Outlook 16.5. Conclusion Acknowledgements References

    CHAPTER 17
    LONG-WAVELENGTH DILUTE NITRIDE–ANTIMONIDE LASERS
    17.1. Introduction 17.2. Epitaxial Growth Systems: MOVPE and MBE 17.3. Ion Damage and Annealing Behavior 17.4. GaInNAsSb Edge-emitting Lasers 17.5. Spontaneous Emission Studies 17.6. GaInNAsSb VCSELs 17.7. High Power Lasers Based on GaInNAs(Sb) 17.8. Relative Intensity Noise 17.9. GaInNAsSb Electroabsorption Modulators and Saturable Absorbers 17.10. Laser Reliability 17.11. Summary Acknowledgements References

    CHAPTER 18
    APPLICATION OF DILUTE NITRIDE MATERIALS TO HETEROJUNCTION BIPOLAR TRANSISTORS
    18.1. Introduction 18.2. Design Considerations for GaInNAs-based HBTs 18.3. Material Growth and Device Processing 18.4. GaInNAs HBT Results 18.5. Circuit Applications for GaInNAs HBTs 18.6. Future Outlook Acknowledgements References Index

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