Digital Compression for Multimedia book cover

Digital Compression for Multimedia

Principles & Standards

Drawing on their experience in industry, research, and academia, this powerful author team combines their expertise to provide an accessible guide to data compression standards and techniques and their applications. The essential ideas and motivation behind the various compression methods are presented, and insight is provided into the evolution of the standards. Standards-compliant design alternatives are discussed, and some noncompliant designs also are treated.

Covering the fundamental underpinnings of the most widely used compression methods, this book is intended for engineers and computer scientists designing, manufacturing, and implementing compression systems, as well as system integrators, technical managers, and researchers. It provides, in a single source, an overview of the current standards for speech, audio, video, image, fax, and file compression.* Authored by five experts from industry and academia who are heavily involved in research, development, and standards-setting activities* Covers the full spectrum of multimedia compression standards including those for lossless data compression, speech coding, high-quality audio coding, still image compression, facsimile, and video compression* Provides enough theory for you to understand the building blocks of the compression systems discussed, with appendices containing necessary algorithmic details and mathematical foundations

Hardbound, 478 Pages

Published: January 1998

Imprint: Morgan Kaufmann

ISBN: 978-1-55860-369-1

Contents

  • Contents

    Preface

    1 Introduction to Data Compression
    1.1 Why Compress?
    1.2 The Data Compression Problem
    1.2.1 Synonyms for Data Compression
    1.2.2 Components of a Data Compression Problem
    1.2.3 Types of Compression Problems
    1.3 Input Source Formats
    1.4 Reconstructed Source Quality
    1.4.1 Performance Measurement
    1.4.2 Perceptual Distortion Measures
    1.5 System Issues and Performance Comparisons
    1.6 Applications and Standards
    1.7 Outline of the Book

    2 Lossless Source Coding
    2.1 Introduction
    2.2 Instantaneous Variable-Length Codes
    2.3 Unique Decipherability
    2.4 Huffman Codes
    2.5 Nonbinary Hufmann Codes
    2.6 The Kraft Inequality and Optimality
    2.7 Group 3 and Group 4 Fax Standards
    2.7.1 Group 3 Fax
    2.7.2 Group 4 Fax
    2.7.3 Noise and Half-Toning
    2.8 Line Drawing Compression
    2.9 Entropy and a Bound on Performance
    2.9.1 Some Inequalities
    2.9.2 Entropy
    2.9.3 Entropy Lower Bounds Achievable Compression
    2.10 Conditional Entropy and Mutual Information
    2.11 Entropy Rate of a Stationary Source
    2.11.1 Joint Entropy and the Chain Rule
    2.11.2 Definitions of Entropy Rate
    2.11.3 Shannon-Fano Codes

    3 Universal Lossless Source Coding
    3.1 Adaptivity and Universality
    3.2 Parsing
    3.3 LZ Compression
    3.3.1 LZ78
    3.3.2 LZW
    3.3.3 LZY
    3.3.4 LZ77
    3.4 Elias Coding, Arithmetic Coding, and JBIG Fax
    3.4.1 Elias Coding
    3.4.2 Arithmetic Coding
    3.4.3 The JBIG Fax Standard

    4 Quantization
    4.1 Introduction
    4.2 Scalar Quantization
    4.2.1 Uniform Quantization
    4.2.2 Nonuniform Quantization
    4.2.3 Logarithmic Companding
    4.2.4 Adaptive Quantization
    4.2. 5 Embedded Quantization
    4.3 Vector Quantization
    4.3.1 VQ Structure, Design, and Performance
    4.3.2 Optimal VQ
    4.3.3 Structured VQ
    4.4 Summary

    5 Predictive Coding
    5.1 Introduction
    5.2 The Linear Prediction Model and Linear Predictive Coding
    5.2.1 Coefficient Calculation
    5.2.2 Other Parameters
    5.2.3 Voiced/Unvoiced Decision and Excitation Signal
    5.2.4 Pitch Period Estimation
    5.2.5 Excitation Gain
    5.2.6 LPC Performance
    5.3 Delta Modulation and Differential PCM
    5.3.1 Delta Modulation
    5.3.2 Nyquist-Sampled Predictive Coders
    5.3.3 Short-Term Predictor Adaptation
    5.4 Embedded DPCM
    5.5 Multipulse Linear Predictive Coding (MPLPC)
    5.6 Code Excited Linear Predictive Coding
    5.7 Perceptual Weighting and Postfiltering
    5.8 Summary

    6 Linear Predictive Speech Coding Standards
    6.1 Introduction
    6.2 ITU G.721/G.726/G.727
    6.3 U.S. Federal Standard 1015
    6.4 U.S. Federal Standard 1016
    6.5 GSM 13-kbps Coder
    6.6 TIA 8-kbps VSELP
    6.7 TIA QCELP
    6.8 LD-CELP, ITU G.728
    6.9 ITU G.729
    6.10 ITU G.723.1
    6.11 JDC (PDC) Full Rate, GSM Half Rate, and JDC Half Rate
    6.12 U.S. Federal Standard at 2.4 kbps
    6.13 Additional and Forthcoming Standards

    7 Frequency Domain Coding
    7.1 Introduction
    7.2 Subband Coding of Speech
    7.2.1 Example 1
    7.2.2 Example 2
    7.3 Subband Coding of Images
    7.4 Transform Coding of Speech and Images
    7.4.1 Discrete Transforms
    7.5 Wavelet Coding
    7.6 Fractal Coding
    7.7 Summary

    8 Frequency Domain Speech and Audio Coding Standards
    8.1 Introduction
    8.2 ITU G.722 Wideband Audio and Lower Rate Extensions
    8.3 Simulatenous Masking and Temporal Masking in Audio
    8.4 High-Quality Audio for Video Standards
    8.4.1 MPEG-1 Audio
    8.4.2 MPEG-2 Audio
    8.4.3 Dolby AC-2 and AC-3
    8.4.4 AT&T's Perceptual Audio Coder
    8.5 Coding for Audio Storage Devices
    8.5.1 DCC PASC Coder
    8.5.2 Minidisc ATRAC Coder
    8.6 INMARSAT Speech Coder
    8.7 Summary

    9 JPEG Still-Image Compression Standard
    9.1 Introduction
    9.2 Baseline JPEG
    9.3 Progressive Encoding
    9.4 Hierarchical (Pyramidal) Encoding
    9.5 Entropy Coding
    9.5.1 Example of DCT Coefficient Encoding
    9.6 Image Data Conventions
    9.7 Lossless Encoding Mode
    9.8 Summary

    10 Multimedia Conferencing Standards
    10.1 Introduction
    10.2 H.320 for ISDN Videoconferencing
    10.2.1 The H.320 Standards Suite
    10.2.2 H.221 Multiplex
    10.2.3 System Control Protocol
    10.2.4 Audio Coding
    10.2.5 Video Coding
    10.2.6 H.231 and H.243--Multipoint
    10.2.7 H.233 and H.234--Encryption
    10.2.8 H.224 and H.281--Real-Time Far-End Camera Control
    10.2.9 H.331 Broadcast
    10.3 H.320 Network Adaptation Standards: H.321 and H.322
    10.3.1 H.321--Adaptation of H.320 to ATM and B-ISDN
    10.3.2 H.322--Adaptation of H.320 to IsoEthernet
    10.4 A New Generation H.323, H.324, adn H.310
    10.4.1 H.245 Control Protocol
    10.4.2 Audio and Video Codecs
    10.4.3 H.323 for Packet Switched Networks
    10.4.4 H.324 for Low-Bit-Rate Circuit Switched Networks
    10.4.5 H.310 for ATM and B-ISDN Networks
    10.5 T.120 Data Conferencing and Conference Control
    10.5.1 T.120 Infrastructure
    10.5.2 T.120 Application Protocols
    10.6 Delay in Multimedia Conferencing Systems
    10.6.1 Sources of Audio Delay
    10.7 Summary

    11 MPEG Compression
    11.1 Introduction
    11.2 The MPEG Model
    11.2.1 Key Applications and Problems
    11.2.2 Strategy for Standardization
    11.2.3 Parts of the MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 Standards
    11.3 MPEG Video
    11.3.1 The Basic Algorithm
    11.3.2 Temporal Prediction
    11.3.3 Frequency Domain Decomposition
    11.3.4 Quantization
    11.3.5 Variable-Length Coding
    11.3.6 Syntactical Layering in MPEG
    11.3.7 Rate Control
    11.3.8 Constrained Parameters, Levels, and Profiles
    11.4 MPEG Audio
    11.4.1 Layers
    11.4.2 The Basic Algorithm
    11.4.3 Subband Decomposition
    11.4.4 Scaling, Quantization, and Coding
    11.4.5 Multichannel Compression
    11.5 MPEG Systems
    11.5.1 Timing
    11.5.2 System and Program Streams
    11.5.3 Transport Streams
    11.5.4 Packetized Elementary Stream (PES) and MPEG-1 Packets
    11.5.5 Program-Specific Information
    11.6 More MPEG
    11.6.1 MPEG-4
    11.6.2 Digital Storage Media Command and Control
    11.6.3 Advanced Audio Coding
    11.6.4 The Professional or 4:2:2 Profile
    11.7 Summary

    Appendix A - Speech Quality and Intelligibility
    A.1 Introduction
    A.2 Phases of Speech Coder Evaluation
    A.3 Informal Tests
    A.3.1 Objective Measures
    A.3.2 Subjective Tests
    A.4 Formal Tests
    A.4.1 Intelligibilty
    A.4.2 Quality
    A.5 Important Considerations

    Appendix B - Proof That Huffman Codes Minimize

    Appendix C - Proof That Every UD Code Satisfies the Kraft Inequality

    Appendix D - Behavior of Approximations to Entropy Rate

    Appendix E - Proof of Forward March Property for LZY

    Appendix F - Efficient Coding of Lk for LZ77

    References

    Glossary

    Index

    About the Authors

Advertisement

advert image