Diet plays an important role in the treatment of diabetes, alone or in combination with insulin or oral hypoglycemic drugs. The diabetic nutrition plan of an individual necessitates to be based upon, excepting the usual parameters, his/her socioeconomic status, ethnicity/religion, and local food habits. It is important that diet plan is individualized and also region based. Since there are a number of artificial sweeteners available now, it is necessary that physicians should take in account scientific data while prescribing any artificial sweetener. This issue in the ECAB Update Series: Diabetology reviews these issues in accordance with the Indian Dietary habits and available evidence to support the clinical decisions.