Diagnostic Ultrasound Imaging: Inside OutBy
- Thomas Szabo, Boston University, MA, USA
Diagnostic Ultrasound Imaging provides a comprehensive introduction to and a state-of-the-art review of the essential science and signal processing principles of diagnostic ultrasound. The progressive organization of the material serves beginners in medical ultrasound science and graduate students as well as design engineers, medical physicists, researchers, clinical collaborators, and the curious. This it the most comprehensive and extensive work available on the core science and workings of advanced digital imaging systems, exploring the subject in a unified, consistent and interrelated manner. From its antecedents to the modern day use and prospects for the future, this it the most up-to-date text on the subject. Diagnostic Ultrasound Imaging provides in-depth overviews on the following major aspects of diagnostic ultrasound: absorption in tissues; acoustical and electrical measurements; beamforming, focusing, and imaging; bioeffects and ultrasound safety; digital imaging systems and terminology; Doppler and Doppler imaging; nonlinear propagation, beams and harmonic imaging; scattering and propagation through realistic tissues; and tissue characterization.
Suitable as a graduate level text for engineering or science students or as a reference for the practicing engineer, scientist or physician engaged in ultrasound research or development
Published: September 2004
Imprint: Academic Press
You might think: Yet another book covering a well-known medical topic? - yes, that is right but it is written from a technical insider in a way that helps to understand the essential physics and signal processing techniques behind modern imaging systems as well as the processing of the resulting echo information step-by-step. Some of the 15 chapters are dedicated to one special part or "inside" of a diagnostic imaging system: Various transducer construction and system technology or beamforming methods. These different topics are explained on a level that is suitable both for newcomers and for experienced readers. Basic equations and underlying concepts are given to understand the function of the latest commercial products used in medical applications. A reference list citing fundamental publications is added to each chapter. But how does ultrasound interact with tissue or blood and what about nonlinear aspects during propagation? The book also gives detailed and enhanced answers, explains well-known models concerning bioeffects, scattering or non-linear effects caused by contrast agents within the remaining chapters - always having modern applications and examples in mind. The author is successful to span the descriptive bridge between the technology implemented inside a modern ultrasonic imaging system for emitting and for processing the information that is coming back from outside after interacting with the human body. Theory and reality is combined in a comprehensive, illustrative and practical manner to enjoy the reading and learning of diagnostic ultrasound imaging. Christian Kollmann, Vienna, European Journal of Ultrasound This book is well suited to MATLAB, a high-level programming language, including demonstrations of figures and examples with MATLAB programming lines. Accompanying program sets, solutions, and programs can be found on the Elsevier web site. In addition, a review of Fourier transforms is included with step-by-step worked out examples. This book is recommended for universities offering graduate programs in diagnostic ultrasound imaging, engineering, and medical physics. It fills the need for an advanced scientific text of diagnostic ultrasound research. Martha F. Earl, Reference Coordinator, University of Tennessee Graduate School of Medicine, Preston Medical Library
- 1. Introduction IntroductionEcho Ranging of the BodyUltrasound Portrait PhotographersUltrasound CinematographersModern Ultrasound Imaging DevelopmentsEnabling Technologies for Ultrasounds ImagingUltrasound Imaging SafetyUltrasound and Other Diagnostic Imaging ModalitiesConclusionBibliographyReferences2. OverviewIntroductionFourier TransformBuilding BlocksCentral DiagramReferences3. Acoustic Wave PropagationIntroduction to WavesPlane Waves in Liquids and SolidsElastic Waves in SolidsConclusionBibliographyReferences4. AttenuationLosses in TissuesLosses in Both Frequency and Time DomainsTissue ModelsPulses in Lossy MediaPenetration and Time Gain CompensationHookes Law for Viscoelastic MediaWave Equations for TissuesReferenes5. TransducersIntroduction to TransducersResonant Modes of TransducersEquivalent Circuit Transducer ModelTransducer Design ConsiderationsTransducer PulsesEquations for Piezoelectric MediaPiezoelectric MaterialsComparison of Piezoelectric MaterialsTransducer Advanced TopicsBibliographyReferences6. BeamformingWhat is Diffraction?Fresnel Approximation of Spatial Diffraction IntegralRectangular ApertureApodizationCircular AperturesFocusingAngular Spectrum of WavesDiffraction LossLimited Diffraction BeamBibliographyReferences7. Array BeamformingWhy Arrays?Diffraction in the Time DomainCircular Radiators in the Time DomainArraysPulse-Echo BeamformingTwo-Dimensional ArraysBaffledGeneral ApproachesNonideal Array PerformanceBibliography References8. Wave Scattering and ImagingIntroductionScattering of ObjectsRole of Transducer Diffraction and FocusingRole of ImagingBibliographyReferences9. Scattering From Tissue and Tissue CharacterizationIntroductionScattering from TissuesProperties of and Propagation in Heterogeneous TissueArray Processing of Scattered Pulse-Echo SignalsTissue Characterization MethodsApplications of Tissue CharacterizationElastographyAberration CorrectionWave Equations for TissueBibliographyReferences10. Imaging Systems and ApplicationsIntroductionTrends in Imaging SystemsMajor ControlsBlock DiagramMajor ModesClinical ApplicationsTransducers and Image FormatsFront EndScannerBack EndAdvanced Signal ProcessingAlternate Imaging System ArchitecturesBibliographyReferences11. Doppler ModelsIntroduction The Doppler EffectScattering from Flowing Blood in VesselsContinuous Wave DopplerPulsed Wave DopplerComparison of Pulsed and Continuous Wave DopplerUltrasound Color Flow ImagingNon-Doppler Visualization of Blood FlowConclusionBibliographyReferences12. Nonlinear Acoustics and ImagingIntroductionWhat is Nonlinear Propagation?Propagation in a Nonlinear Medium with LossesPropagation of Beams in Nonlinear MediaHarmonic ImagingHarmonic Signal ProcessingOther Nonlinear EffectsNonlinear Wave Equations and Simulation ModelsSummaryBibliographyReferences13. Ultrasonic Exposimetry and Acoustic MeasurementsIntroduction to MeasurementsMaterials CharacterizationTransducersAcoustic Output MeasurementsPerformance MeasurementsThought ExperimentsBibliographyReferences14. Ultrasound Contrast AgentsIntroductionMicrobubble as Linear ResonatorMicrobubble as Nonlinear ResonatorCavitation and Bubble DestructionUltrasound Contrast AgentsImaging with Ultrasound Contrast AgentsTherapeutic Ultrasound Contrast Agents: Smart BubblesEquations of Motion for Contrast AgentsConclusionsBibliographyReferences15. Ultrasound-Induced BioeffectsIntroductionUltrasound-Induced Bioeffects: Observation to RegulationThermal EffectsMechanical EffectsThe Output Display StandardComparison of Medical Ultrasound ModalitiesPrimary and Secondary Ultrasound-Induced BioeffectsEquations for Predicting Temperature RiseConclusionsBibliographyReferencesAppendix AAppendix BAppendix CAppendix DIndex