Diagnostic Pathology: Cytopathology

By

  • Dina Mody, MD, Director of Cytology, Department of Pathology and Genomic Medicine, Houston Methodist Hospital, Houston, Texas; Professor of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York

Featuring a highly accessible, easy-to-read format, Diagnostic Pathology: Cytopathology is written with the busy cytopathology professional in mind. "Key Facts" at the beginning of each chapter highlight the quick criteria needed for diagnosis or adequacy evaluation at the time of a procedure, while comprehensive coverage throughout the rest of the chapter is written in a consistent, succinct way to facilitate learning.
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Book information

  • Published: February 2014
  • Imprint: AMIRSYS
  • ISBN: 978-1-931884-55-6


Table of Contents

PART 1: GYNECOLOGIC CYTOPATHOLOGY

SECTION I: OVERVIEW

Pap Test: History and Reporting Terminology

Cytopreparation, Instrumentation, and Automated Screening in Gynecologic Cytology

Specimen Adequacy in Cervicovaginal Cytology

SECTION II: BENIGN AND INFECTIOUS CONDITIONS

Normal Pap Test

Infectious and Other Organisms in Pap Tests

Benign/Other Nonneoplastic Findings

Other Benign Mimics and Artifacts

SECTION III: SQUAMOUS CELL ABNORMALITIES AND MIMICS

Low-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion and Mimics

High-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion and Mimics

Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance

Atypical Squamous Cells, Cannot Rule Out High-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion

Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Cervix, Variants and Mimics

SECTION IV: GLANDULAR CELL ABNORMALITIES AND MIMICS

Endocervical Adenocarcinoma In Situ, Variants and Mimics

Endocervical Adenocarcinoma, Variants and Mimics

Adenocarcinoma, Minimal Deviation

Endometrial Cancers: Usual Types, Variants, and Mimics

Atypical Glandular Cells: Endocervicals, Endometrials, and Glandulars, NOS

Endometrial Cells in Pap Test and Glandular Cells Status Post Hysterectomy

SECTION V: EXTRAUTERINE CARCINOMAS AND OTHER MALIGNANCIES OF FEMALE GENITAL TRACT

Extrauterine Carcinomas and Presentations in Cervicovaginal Cytology

Small Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of Cervix

Other Uncommon Malignancies in Cervicovaginal Cytology

SECTION VI: MOLECULAR TESTING IN GYNECOLOGIC CYTOLOGY

HPV and Other Molecular Testing in Gynecologic Cytology

SECTION VII: DIRECTLY SAMPLED ENDOMETRIAL CYTOLOGY

Directly Sampled Endometrial Cytology

SECTION VIII: ANAL CYTOLOGY

Anal Cytology

PART 2: EXFOLIATIVE CYTOPATHOLOGY

SECTION I: RESPIRATORY TRACT INCLUDING LUNG FNAS

Specimen Types in Respiratory Cytology and Adequacy Criteria

Benign and Reactive Changes

Pneumocystis Pneumonia and Mimics

Fungal Organisms in Respiratory Cytology

Parasitic Organisms in Respiratory Cytology

Viral Infections (Cytomegalovirus, Herpesvirus, and Others)

Mycobacteria and Other Bacterial Infections

Sarcoidosis and Other Immune-Related Conditions

Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis and Mimics

Miscellaneous Findings Including Contaminants

Adenocarcinoma

Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Small Cell Carcinoma

Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma

Carcinoid and Atypical Carcinoid

Rare Benign and Low Malignant Potential Tumors

Rare Malignant Tumors

Pulmonary Lymphoma

Pulmonary Metastasis

SECTION II: GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT

Specimen Types in Gastrointestinal Cytology and Normal Cellular Components

Parasitic Infections

Viral Infections

Esophagitis and Barrett Esophagus

Esophageal Adenocarcinoma

Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Gastritis and Intestinal Metaplasia

Gastric Adenocarcinoma

Gastric Lymphoma

Ampulla/Bile Duct/Pancreatic Duct Reactive Changes

Ampulla/Bile Duct/Pancreatic Duct Adenocarcinoma

Colorectal Adenoma/Carcinoma

Neuroendocrine Tumor/Carcinoma

SECTION III: CEREBROSPINAL FLUID

Normal Cerebrospinal Fluid and Contamination by Normal Elements

Infectious Meningitis

Aseptic and Mollaret Meningitis

Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

Neurodegenerative Diseases

Primary Brain Tumors

Leukemia and Lymphoma

Metastasis in CSF

SECTION IV: PLERUAL, PERITONEAL, PERICARDIAL, AND PELVIC FLUID AND WASHINGS

Normal Cellular Components and Reactive Mesothelial Proliferations

Infectious Conditions

Autoimmune Diseases

Malignant Effusion, Mesothelioma

Malignant Effusion, Carcinomas

Malignant Effusion, Sarcomas

Lymphoid Effusions and Lymphomas

Primary Effusion Lymphoma

Endometriosis and Endosalpingiosis

Ovarian Neoplasms

Immunocytochemistry, Histochemistry, and Other Ancillary Techniques

SECTION V: URINARY CYTOLOGY

Normal Urinary Cytology and Specimen Types

Ileal Conduit Specimens

Noninfectious Benign Conditions

Infectious Benign Conditions

Reactive Urothelial Changes

Low-Grade Urothelial Lesions

High-Grade Urothelial Dysplasia/Carcinoma/Carcinoma In Situ

Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Urinary Bladder

Adenocarcinoma of Urinary Bladder

Other Malignancies in Urinary Cytology

Renal Pelvic Cytology

Ancillary Testing, UroVysion, and Others

PART 3: FINE-NEEDLE ASPIRATION, SUPERFICIAL

SECTION I: OVERVIEW

Superficial Aspiration Technique

SECTION II: THYROID GLAND

Ultrasound-Guided Thyroid Fine-Needle Aspiration

Thyroid Fine-Needle Aspiration Reporting Terminology and Specimen Adequacy

Adenomatous Nodule

Chronic Lymphocytic/Hashimoto Thyroiditis

Granulomatous Thyroiditis

Graves Disease/Diffuse Toxic Goiter

Pigmented Thyroid Lesions and Crystals

Atypical (Follicular) Cells of Undetermined Significance

Suspicious for Follicular Neoplasm

Suspicious for Hürthle Cell Neoplasm

Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Variants

Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma

Poorly Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma

Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma

Thyroid Lymphoma

Metastatic Carcinoma to Thyroid

Other Nonneoplastic and Neoplastic Thyroid Lesions Encountered on Thyroid FNA

SECTION III: PARATHYROID GLAND

Parathyroid Cyst, Adenoma, and Carcinoma

SECTION IV: LYMPH NODES

Overview

Indications for Aspiration and Techniques

FNA Sample Prep and Triage in Evaluating Suspected Lymphoma

Benign, Infectious, and Reactive Hyperplasia

Inflammatory and Reactive Lymphoid Hyperplasia

Granulomatous Lymphadenitis, Infectious and Sarcoid

Rosai-Dorfman Disease

Metastatic Malignancies

Metastatic Malignancies (Carcinoma, Melanoma)

HPV-Related Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Nodal B-Cell Lymphoma

Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma

Mantle Cell Lymphoma

Nodal Marginal Zone Lymphoma

Follicular Lymphoma

Burkitt Lymphoma

Large B-Cell Lymphoma

Extranodal B-Cell Lymphoma

Plasmacytoma

Mediastinal Large B-Cell Lymphoma

Plasmablastic Lymphoma

T-Cell Lymphoma

Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma

Mycosis Fungoides

Angioimmunoblastic Lymphoma

ALK(+) Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma

T-Cell Lymphoblastic Lymphoma

Hodgkin Lymphoma

Nodular Lymphocyte-Predominant Hodgkin Lymphoma

Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma

SECTION V: SALIVARY GLAND

Overview

Approach to Interpretation of Salivary Gland Aspiration Biopsies

Benign Lesions

Normal Salivary Gland and Sialadenitis on Aspiration

Cysts

Pleomorphic Adenoma

Warthin Tumor

Other Benign Neoplasms

Malignant Neoplasms

Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma

Acinic Cell Carcinoma

Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma

Basaloid Neoplasms, Benign and Malignant

Carcinoma Ex Pleomorphic Adenoma

Adenocarcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified

Polymorphous Low-Grade Adenocarcinoma

Salivary Duct Carcinoma

Metastatic Carcinoma

Primary and Metastatic Nonepithelial Tumors

SECTION VI: BREAST

Overview

Role of Fine-Needle Aspiration of Breast,Techniques and Triple Test

Benign Breast Lesions

Inflammatory and Granulomatous Conditions

Fat Necrosis

Nonproliferative and Proliferative Changes in Breast

Radial Scar/Complex Sclerosing Lesion

Gynecomastia

Mucocele-Like Lesion

Benign Neoplasms

Fibroadenoma

Granular Cell Tumor of Breast

Papillary Neoplasms

Myofibroblastoma

Malignant Neoplasms

Ductal Carcinoma and Variants of Invasive Mammary Carcinoma

Lobular Carcinoma

Phyllodes Tumor

Angiosarcoma and Other Sarcomas

Lymphomas and Metastatic Tumors

Nipple Discharge

Cytology Specimens for Risk Assessment of Breast Cancer

PART 4: FINE-NEEDLE ASPIRATION, DEEP ORGANS AND TISSUES

SECTION I: OVERVIEW

Techniques and Modalities of Deep Aspiration Biopsies

SECTION II: MEDIASTINUM

Overview

Anatomic Compartments and Constituent Tumors

Nonneoplastic Lesions

Mediastinal Cysts and Inflammatory Lesions

Neoplasms

Thymoma

Thymic Carcinoma

Germ Cell Tumors

Neurogenic Tumors

Metastatic Tumors

SECTION III: LIVER

Overview

Cytology of Normal Liver

Inflammatory and Infectious Conditions of Liver

Benign Hepatic Neoplasms

Hepatocellular Adenoma

Focal Nodular Hyperplasia

Hemangioma

Malignant Neoplasms

Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Hepatoblastoma

Liver Metastasis

SECTION IV: KIDNEY

Overview

Cytology of Normal Kidney

Nonneoplastic Lesions

Renal Cysts

Xanthogranulomatous Pyelonephritis/Malakoplakia

Benign Neoplasms

Angiomyolipoma

Oncocytoma

Metanephric Adenoma

Metanephric Stromal Tumor

Malignant Neoplasms

Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma

Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma

Chromophobe Renal Cell Carcinoma

Collecting Duct Carcinoma

Mucinous Tubular and Spindle Cell Carcinoma of Kidney

Renal Medullary Carcinoma

Metastatic Tumors to Kidney

Renal Lymphomas

Primary Renal Sarcomas in Adults

Nephroblastoma (Wilms Tumor)

Clear Cell Sarcoma of Kidney

Rhabdoid Tumor of Kidney

Congenital Mesoblastic Nephroma

Carcinoid Tumor

Tumors of Renal Pelvis

Urothelial Carcinoma

SECTION V: ADRENAL GLAND

Overview

Cytology of Normal Adrenal Gland

Adrenal Cortical Lesions

Adrenal Cortical Adenoma

Adrenal Cortical Carcinoma

Metastatic Tumors to Adrenal Gland

Adrenal Medullary Lesions

Pheochromocytoma

SECTION VI: PANCREAS

Overview

Cytology of Normal Pancreas

Pancreatic Cytology Reporting Terminology and Other Nonneoplastic Entities

Nonneoplastic Lesions

Pancreatitis

Neoplasms

Serous Microcystic Adenoma

Mucinous Cystic Neoplasm

Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm

Solid Pseudopapillary Neoplasm

Pancreatic Endocrine Tumor

Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma

Unusual Variants of Ductal Carcinoma

Acinar Cell Carcinoma

Lymphoma and Secondary Tumors of Pancreas

SECTION VII: BONE

Overview

Approach to Cytologic/Small Biopsy Diagnosis of Primary Bone Tumors

Neoplasms

Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis

Osteoblastoma

Osteosarcoma

Chondromas of Bone and Soft Tissue

Chondroblastoma

Chondrosarcoma

Ewing Sarcoma/Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor

Adamantinoma

Chordoma

Giant Cell Tumor

Bone Lymphoma

Metastatic Tumors

SECTION VIII: SOFT TISSUE

Overview

Approach to Cytologic/Small Biopsy Diagnosis of Primary Soft Tissue Lesions

Adipocytic Tumors

Benign Adipose Tissue Tumors

Liposarcoma

Fibroblastic/Myofibroblastic Lesions

Fibrosarcoma

Myofibroblastoma

Myofibroblastic Sarcoma

Fibrohistiocytic Tumors

Giant Cell Tumor of Tendon Sheath

Fibrohistiocytic Tumors

Tumors of Muscle Origin

Smooth Muscle Tumors

Skeletal Muscle Tumors

Vascular Tumors

Hemangioma

Epithelioid Hemangioendothelioma

Angiosarcoma

Other Tumors

Other Reactive and Neoplastic Soft Tissue Entities, Including GIST

Cutaneous and Adnexal Cytology

Intramuscular Myxoma

Synovial Sarcoma

Epithelioid Sarcoma

Alveolar Soft Part Sarcoma

Clear Cell Sarcoma of Soft Tissue

Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor

SECTION IX: OPTHALAMIC AND NEUROPATHOLOGY

Approach to Ophthalmic Cytology

Ophthalmic Cytopathology, Infectious

Ophthalmic Cytopathology, Neoplastic

Neuropathology Squash Preparations, Infectious

Neuropathology Squash Preparations, Glial Neoplasms

Neuropathology Squash Preparations, Nonglial Neoplasms

PART 5: MANAGEMENT AND ANCILLARY TESTING

SECTION I: CYTOPREPERATORY AND QUALITY MANAGEMENT

Cytopreparatory Techniques and Instrumentation in Nongynecologic Cytology

Quality Improvement and Risk Reduction in Cytopathology

SECTION II: ANCILLARY TESTING

Immunocytochemistry

Molecular Techniques