Developing High Quality Data Models book cover

Developing High Quality Data Models

Developing High Quality Data Models provides an introduction to the key principles of data modeling. It explains the purpose of data models in both developing an Enterprise Architecture and in supporting Information Quality; common problems in data model development; and how to develop high quality data models, in particular conceptual, integration, and enterprise data models. The book is organized into four parts. Part 1 provides an overview of data models and data modeling including the basics of data model notation; types and uses of data models; and the place of data models in enterprise architecture. Part 2 introduces some general principles for data models, including principles for developing ontologically based data models; and applications of the principles for attributes, relationship types, and entity types. Part 3 presents an ontological framework for developing consistent data models. Part 4 provides the full data model that has been in development throughout the book. The model was created using Jotne EPM Technologys EDMVisualExpress data modeling tool. This book was designed for all types of modelers: from those who understand data modeling basics but are just starting to learn about data modeling in practice, through to experienced data modelers seeking to expand their knowledge and skills and solve some of the more challenging problems of data modeling.


This book is intended for data management professionals with job functions that include data modeler; data architect; database designer; database application developer and application architect.

Paperback, 408 Pages

Published: December 2010

Imprint: Morgan Kaufmann

ISBN: 978-0-12-375106-5


  • "This guide to developing high quality data models provides practical instruction in understanding the core principle of data modeling and creating accurate models from complex databases. The work is divided into four sections covering the basics of data model types and uses, general principles for data model components and an ontological framework for consistent data models. A final section presents a complete, standards compliant data model created with the Jotne EPM Technology EDMVisusalExpress data modeling tool. Numerous illustrations, charts and sample programming code are included throughout the work and access to additional online content, including the sample data model, is provided. West is an experienced data modeler working in the energy field."--Book News, Reference & Research

    "Overall, the book is a helpful guide for those who wish to go deep into the art of developing high quality data models. Readers will appreciate: how West connects data models with EA and business processes; the ontological approach, which offers a framework for formal, generic, and consistent models; the efficient use of diagrams for explaining the notions; and the philosophical concepts discussed throughout the text. The book is highly technical. Although it does not directly address people from academia, it will be very useful for related courses, especially those that deal with IT and business processes. Finally, the book highlights the importance of quality in data modeling for decision making."--Computing


  • Preface

    Part 1 Motivations and Notations

    Chapter 1 Introduction

    1.1 Some Questions about Data Models

    1.2 Purpose

    1.3 Target Audience

    1.4 What Is a Data Model?

    1.5 Why Do We Do Data Models?

    1.6 Approach to Data Modeling

    1.7 Structure of This Book

    Chapter 2 Entity Relationship Model Basics

    2.1 Oh, Its Boxes and Lines Again

    2.2 Graphical or Lexical

    2.3 Graphical Notations: Complexity vs. Understandability vs. Capability

    2.4 Language and Notation Elements

    2.5 Express-G

    2.6 Notation for Instances and Classes

    2.7 Layout of Data Models

    2.8 Reflections

    Chapter 3 Some Types and Uses of Data Models

    3.1 Different Types of Data Models

    3.2 Integration of Data and Data Models

    3.3 Concluding Remarks

    Chapter 4 Data Models and Enterprise Architecture

    4.1 The Business Process Model

    4.2 Information Architecture

    4.3 Information Operations

    4.4 Organization

    4.5 Methodologies and Standards

    4.6 Management

    4.7 Wider Infrastructure

    4.8 Enterprise Architecture Mappings

    4.9 The Process/Data Balance

    Chapter 5 Some Observations on Data Models and Data Modeling

    5.1 Limitations of Data Models

    5.2 Challenges in Data Modeling

    Part 2 General Principles for Data Models

    Chapter 6 Some General Principles for Conceptual, Integration, and Enterprise Data Models

    6.1 Data Modeling Approach

    6.2 General Principles

    6.3 Understanding Relationships

    6.4 Principles for Data Models

    6.5 Naughtiness Index

    Chapter 7 Applying the Principles for Attributes

    7.1 Looking for Attributes Representing Relationships

    7.2 Identifiers

    7.3 What Other Attributes Might You Expect?

    7.4 Concluding Remarks on Attributes

    Chapter 8 General Principles for Relationships

    8.1 Example of Inappropriate Cardinalities-Batch and Product Type

    8.2 Example of Inappropriate Cardinalities-Packed Products

    8.3 An Example of Inappropriate Cardinalities-Ship

    8.4 A Good Example of Applying the Principles for Relationships-Transfer and Storage

    8.5 Concluding Remarks

    Chapter 9 General Principles for Entity Types

    9.1 An Example-Combined Entity Types

    9.2 An Example-Stock

    9.3 Getting Subtypes Wrong

    9.4 An Example of Fixed Hierarchies-Stock Classification

    9.5 Getting the Right Level of Abstraction

    9.6 Impact of Using the Principles

    Part 3 An Ontological Framework for Consistent Data Models

    Chapter 10 Motivation and Overview for an Ontological Framework

    10.1 Motivation

    10.2 Ontological Foundation

    10.3 A Data Model for the Ontological Foundations

    10.4 Closing Remarks

    Chapter 11 Spatio-Temporal Extents

    11.1 Parts

    11.2 Individuals and States

    11.3 Inheritance of Properties by Substates

    11.4 Space and Time

    11.5 Ordinary Physical Objects

    11.6 Levels of Reality

    11.7 Activities and Events

    11.8 Associations

    11.9 A Data Model for Individuals

    Chapter 12 Classes

    12.1 What Is a Set?

    12.2 Sets and Four-Dimensionalism

    12.3 Some Different Kinds of Set Theory

    12.4 A High Level Data Model for Classes

    12.5 Properties and Quantities

    12.6 Scales and Units

    12.7 Kinds

    12.8 Concluding Remarks

    Chapter 13 Intentionally Constructed Objects

    13.1 Introduction

    13.2 Functional Objects

    13.3 Socially Constructed Objects

    13.4 Ownership

    13.5 Agreements

    13.6 Contracts

    13.7 Organizations

    13.8 Product

    13.9 Representation

    13.10 Concluding Remarks

    Chapter 14 Systems and System Components

    14.1 What Are Systems and System Components?

    14.2 The Nature of System Components

    14.3 Another Example: A Football Match

    14.4 Similarities, Differences, and Relationships to Other Things

    14.5 Do I Need a Separate Set of Classes for System Components?

    14.6 Extending the Framework for System and System Component

    14.7 Concluding Remarks

    Chapter 15 Requirements Specification

    15.1 A Process for Procurement

    15.2 Requirements Specification

    Chapter 16 Concluding Remarks

    Part 4 The HQDM Framework Schema

    Chapter 17 HQDM_Framework

    17.1 Thing and Abstract Object

    17.2 Class and Class of Class

    17.3 Relationship and Class of Relationship

    17.4 Spatio-Temporal Extent and Class of Spatio-Temporal Extent

    17.5 Event, Class of Event, and Point in Time

    17.6 State and Individual

    17.7 Physical Object

    17.8 Ordinary Physical Object

    17.9 Kind of Individual and Subtypes

    17.10 Kind of System and System Component

    17.11 Period of Time and Possible Worlds

    17.12 Physical Properties and Physical Quantities

    17.13 Association

    17.14 Activity

    17.15 Participant

    17.16 Role, Class of Activity, and Class of Association

    17.17 System

    17.18 System Component

    17.19 Installed Object

    17.20 Biological Object

    17.21 Ordinary Biological Object

    17.22 Biological System

    17.23 Person

    17.24 Biological System Component

    17.25 Intentionally Constructed Object

    17.26 Functional Object

    17.27 Ordinary Functional Object

    17.28 Functional System

    17.29 Socially Constructed Object

    17.30 Party

    17.31 Organization and Language Community

    17.32 Employment

    17.33 Organization Component and Position

    17.34 Money

    17.35 Ownership

    17.36 Transfer of Ownership

    17.37 Socially Constructed Activity

    17.38 Class of Socially Constructed Activity

    17.39 Agreement

    17.40 Contract

    17.41 Offer and Acceptance of Offer

    17.42 Sale of Goods

    17.43 Sales Product, Product Brand, and Sales Product Version

    17.44 Offering

    17.45 Sign and Pattern

    17.46 Requirement and Requirement Specification

    Appendix: A Mapping between the HQDM Schema and ISO 15926-2



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