Cryogenic Technology and ApplicationsBy
- A.R. Jha, Jha Technical Consulting Services, Cerritos, CA, USA
Cryogenic Technology and Applications describes the need for smaller cryo-coolers as a result of the advances in the miniaturization of electrical and optical devices and the need for cooling and conducting efficiency. Cryogenic technology deals with materials at low temperatures and the physics of their behavior at these temps. The book demonstrates the ongoing new applications being discovered for cryo-cooled electrical and optical sensors and devices, with particular emphasis on high-end commercial applications in medical and scientific fields as well as in the aerospace and military industries. This book summarizes the important aspects of cryogenic technology critical to the design and development of refrigerators, cryo-coolers, and micro-coolers needed by various commercial, industrial, space and military systems. Cryogenic cooling plays an important role in unmanned aerial vehicle systems, infrared search and track sensors, missile warning receivers, satellite tracking systems, and a host of other commercial and military systems.
Mechanical engineers working in cryogenics and low temperature material's behavior. Electrical Engineers working in cryo-cooled sensors and optics.
Graduate students in mechanical, electrical and optical engineering.
Hardbound, 296 Pages
Published: December 2005
Imprint: Butterworth Heinemann
- Chapter 1: Technology advancements and chronological development history of cryogenic technology1.0 Introduction1.1 Terms and phenomena associated with cryogenic engineering1.2 Prominent contributions to the cryogenic technology1.3 Critical aspects and issues involved in cryogenics1.4 Benefits from integration of cryogenic technology1.4.1 Affordability1.4 2 Availability1.5 Early applications of cryogenic technology1.5.1 Cryogenic technology for production of gases1.5.2 Cryogenic technology for inert gases1.5.3 Cryogenic technology for aerospace applications1.5 4 Cryogenic liquid level controller (LLC)1.5.5 Cryogenic line regulators1.6 Gas separation process using cryogenic technology1.7 Industrial applications of cryogenic fluid technology1.7.1 Liquid neon1.7.2 Liquid hydrogen1.7.3 Liquid nitrogen (LIN)1.8 Heat capacity of commercial refrigerants1.9 Cryogenic requirements for frozen food industry1.9.1 Cold storage requirements1.10 Cryogenic requirements for medical applications1.10.1 Cryogenic system requirements for high resolution MRI1.11 Industrial applications of cryogenic technology1.11.1 Cryopumping1.11.2 Nuclear radiation testing1.11.3 Ice-making machines and ice storage systems1.11.4 Chilled water storage (CWS) systems1.12 SummaryChapter Two: Effects of heat flow on heat exchanger performance and cooler efficiency2.0 Introduction2.1 Early developments in cryogenic technology2.2 Impact of thermodynamic aspects on cryogenic technology on cryogenic coolers2.2.1 Introduction2.2.2 Symbols and formulas widely used in thermal analysis2.3 Types of heat flows2.3.1 Linear heat flow220.127.116.11 Impact of linear heat flow on heat exchanger performance2.3.2 Impact of turbulent heat flow on heat exchanger performance2.4 Two-dimensional heat flow model2.4.1 Description of modified-two-fluid model2.5 Heat transfer rates for heat exchangers2.5.1 Conduction mode of heat transfer2.5.2 Convection mode of heat transfer2.5.3 Radiation mode of heat transfer2.6 SummaryChapter Three: Thermodynamic aspects and heat transfer capabilities of heat exchangers for high-capacity coolers3.0 Introduction3.1 Modes of heat transfer phenomena under high heat-capacity conditions3.2 Three distinct laws of heat transfer3.3 Description of heat transfer modes3.3.1 Conduction3.3.2 Radiation3.3.3 Convection3.4 Impact of heat transfer modes on heat exchanger performance under high heat- capacity environments3.4.1 Heat transfer in a planar wall3.4.2 Heat transfer in a composite wall3.5 Heat transfer through heat exchanger pipes3.5.1 Heat flow in cylindrical pipes3.5.2 Heat flow in an insulated pipe3.6 Fundamental design aspects for a heat exchanger in a high-capacity cooler3.6.1 Heat load calculations for heavy-duty heat exchangers3.6.2 Computations of heat load as a function of flow rate and stream temperatures3.7 Estimates of heat removal by cold water and forced air3.8 Computation of overall heat transfer coefficient3.8.1 Computation of overall hear transfer coefficient under fouling conditions18.104.22.168 Overall hear transfer coefficient under clean environment3.9 Computation of critical parameters of heat exchanger3.9.1 Computation of temperature difference for the counter current flow3.9.2 Computation of outside surface area of the heat exchanger3.9.3 Estimation of outside surface areas under clean and fouling conditions3.9.4 Computation of shell diameter3.9.5 Computation of number of tubes for the heat exchanger4.0 Preliminary rating of a heat exchanger5.0 SummaryChapter Four: Critical design aspects and performance capabilities of cryocoolers and microcollers with low cooling capacities4.0 Introduction4.1 Design aspects and operational requirements4.2 Performance requirements for cryocoolers4.2.1 Maintenance aspects and reliability requirements for cryocoolers4.2.2 Cooling power requirements for cryocoolers22.214.171.124 Cooling power requirements for microcoolers4.3 Cryocoolers using high-pressure ratios4.3.1 Advantages of high-pressure expansion ratio4.4 Cooling capacity of cryocooler4.5 Temperature stabilization and optimization mass flow rate for cryocoolers4.6 Advanced technologies for integration in cryocoolers4.6.1 Pulse Tube Refrigerator PTR (PTR) system design aspects and performance capabilities best suited for cryocooler technology4.7 Classification of cryocoolers4.7.1 Stirling-cycle cryocooler4.7.2 Self-regulated Joule-Thomson (JT) Cryocooler4.7.3 Boreas-cycloe cryocooler4.7.4 Closed-cycle cryogenic (CCC) refrigerator4.7.5 Stirling Cryocooler using advanced technologies4.7.6 GM cryocoolers employing JT valves4.7.7 Benefits of GM-cycle cryocoolers4.7.8 Collin-cycle cryocoolers4.7.9 High-temperature refrigerator systems126.96.36.199 Cooling power requirements at higher superconducting temperatures4.8 Performance capabilities of microcoolers4.8.1 Potential cooling schemes for microcoolers4.9 Performance limitations of microcoolers4.10 Specific weight and power estimates for cryocoolers4.11 Thermodynamic aspects and efficiency of cryocoolers4.1.1 Thermal analysis of refrigeration system4.12 Weight requirements for cryogens used by cryocoolers4.13 Characteristics and storage requirements for potential cryogens4.14 Classifications of cryocoolers 4.15 SummaryChapter Five: Performance requirements for moderate and high capacity refrigeration systems5.0 Introduction5.1 Description of high-capacity refrigeration systems5.1.1 Clause-cycle refrigeration system5.1.2 Reversed-Brayton cycle refrigeration system5.2 Refrigeration system with moderate-cooling capacity5.2.1 GM-cycle refrigeration system5.2.2 JT-cycle refrigeration system5.2.3 Brayton-cycle refrigeration system5.3 Turbo-machinery refrigeration system5.4 Coefficient of performance for various cooling systems5.4.1 Coefficient of performance for an ideal Brayton-cycle cooler5.5. Cryogenic Dewar and storage tank requirements for various cooler applications5.6 Storage tank requirements for space and missile applications5.6.1 Liquid-feed requirements for storage systems5.6.1 Transfer line requirements5.7 Operating pressure and temperature requirements for storage of liquefied gases5.8 Cooling agents for various cooling system configurations5.8.1 Characteristics of various cryogens5.8.2 Solid cryogen characteristics5.83 Techniques to reduce heat-leakage and cryogen weight5.9 Performance comparison of various cryogenic coolers5.10 SummaryChapter Six: Cryocoolers and microcoolers requirements best suited for scientific research, military, and space applications6.0 Introduction6.1Cryocooler requirements for various applications6.1.1 Maintenance requirements for cryocoolers6.2 Performance parameters for various cryocoolers6.2.1 Dilution-magnetic cryocooler6.2.2 Collins-helium liquidifier-based cryocooler6.2.3 Gifford-McMahan (GM)-cryogenic refrigerator6.2.4 GM/JT refrigerator system6.2.5 Stirling-cycle cryocooler6.2.6 Self-regulated JT cryocooler6.2.7 Closed-cycle, Split-type, Stirling cryocooler6.3 Cooling schemes used by various systems6.3.1 Choice of cooling scheme6.4 Microcooler requirements for critical Military and Space applications6.5 Unique design concepts and materials for microcoolers and cryocoolers6.5.1 Microcooler and cryocooler designs incorporating rare-earth materials6.5.2 Cryocooler design with high-pressure ratio and counterflow heat exchanger6.6 Critical thermodynamic aspects for cryocoolers requiring rapid cooling time6.6.1 Impact of thermodynamic efficiency on various cooling cycles6.7 Techniques to optimize cooling capacity6.8 Optimization of temperature stability and mass flow rate6.9 Cryocooler design requirements for Critical Space applications6.10 SummaryChapter Seven: Integration of the latest cooler design concepts to improve cooling efficiency, reliability and capacity7.0 Introduction7.1 Unique design concepts and advanced materials7.2 Design concepts for a PTR cryocooler7.2.1 Performance capabilities of a PTR system7.2.2 Thermodynamic aspects of pulse cryocooler188.8.131.52 Derivation of expressions for various operating parameters7.2.3 Minimum refrigeration temperature (MRT) of a cryocooler7.3 Ways and means to improve PTR performance7.3.1 Impact of coolant and regenerative materials on cooler performance7.3.2 Parametric analysis to predict PTR system performance7.3.3 Description of regenerative materials184.108.40.206 Impact of heat leakage on cooler efficiency and cool-down time7.4 Cryocooler designs for industrial applications7.4.1 Cooling power and adiabatic efficiency computations7.5 Multi-bypass and active buffer-stage techniques to improve PTR cooling efficiency and capacity7.5.1 Implementation of active-buffer stages for efficiency enhancement7.5.2 Integration of multi-pass technique to improve cooling efficiency7.6 Cryocooler requirements for microwave, MM-wave, Infrared and laser systems7.6.1 Cooler requirements for microwave and MM-wave systems7.6.2 Cryogenic cooler requirements for infrared devices and sensors7.6.3 Refrigerator requirements for high power laser systems7.7 Cryogenic coolers for sonar applications7.8 Cryogenic coolers for medical applications7.9 SummaryChapter Eight: Requirements for cryogenic materials and accessories needed for various cryogenic coolers8.0 Introduction8.1 Cryocooler requirements for space-based communications, surveillance, and reconnaissance systems8.1.1 Cooler requirements for front-end components8.2 Cryocooler requirements for military system applications8.2.1 Tactical coolers for missiles with MM-wave, Infrared and optical seekers8.3 Dilution refrigeration systems for scientific research8.4 Cryocoolers for higher cryogenic temperatures8.4.1 Mechanical refrigerator (MR)8.4.2 Magnetic refrigerator systems (MRS)8.4.3 Thermoelectric (TE) coolers220.127.116.11 Performance parameters of TE coolers8.5 Heat pipe concept for higher cryogenic temperatures8.5.1 Performance limitations due to working fluids in heat pipes8.6 Impact of material properties on cooler performance8.6.1 Properties of various materials used in cryogenic coolers8.6.2 Thermal properties of materials at cryogenic temperatures8.6.3 Electrical properties of materials at cryogenic temperatures8.6.4 Mechanical properties of materials at cryogenic temperatures8.7 Characteristics of potential refrigerants8.7.1 Cooling capacities of liquid cryogens8.7.2 Cooling with solid cryogens8.8 Maintenance requirements for cooler accessories8.8.1 Requirements for critical accessories8.8.2 Cryogenic insulation requirements8.8.3 Impact of cryogenic leak in tubes, fittings, and valves8.8.4 Impact of thermo-acoustic oscillations on cryogenic coolers8.9 Summary