Countermeasures to Airborne Hazardous Chemicals


  • J.M. Holmes
  • C.H. Haber


Book information

  • Published: December 1990
  • ISBN: 978-0-8155-1232-5

Table of Contents

1. Introduction2. The Nature of the Threat û Task 13. Existing Responsibilities and Instructional Options-Task II3.1 Federal Responsibilities3.2 State and Local Responsibilities3.3 Private Sector Activities3.4 Overlaps and Gaps in Responsibilties and Programs3.5 Prevention3.6 Response Systems3.7 Training4. Technical Options for Countermeasures-Task III4.1 Characterization of Emergency Releases4.2 Technical Basis for Needed Countermeasures4.3 Evaluation of Available Resources4.4 New Technical Approaches4.5 Methodology for Ranking of Chemical Hazards1. Introduction2. Overview of Recent Chemical Emergencies2.1 Bhopal Disaster2.2 Pemex Disaster2.3 Incident at Institute, West Virginia2.4 Acute Hazardous Events Data Base3. Relative Accident Frequencies and Severity3.1 Relative Accident Frequency by Sector3.2 Relative Accident Severity by Sector3.3 Relative Accident Frequencies and Severity by Hazardous Chemical3.4 Events Involving Death or Injury4. Current Responsibilities4.1 Prevention4.2 Planning4.3 Response4.4 Training5. Federal and State Statutes for Hazardous Materials5.1 Clean Water Act (CWA) of 19775.2 Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA)5.3 Clean Air Act of 1970 and Clean Air Act Amendments of 19775.4 Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) of 19765.5 Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 19805.6 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)5.7 Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 19865.8 Occupational Safety and Health Act5.9 State Statutes for Hazardous Materials6. Federal Agency Responsibilities and Programs6.1 Federal Emergency Mangement Agency6.2 National Response Center (NRC)6.3 National and Regional Response Teams6.4 Environmental Response Team (ERT) and National Strike Force6.5 Environmental Protection Agency6.6 Department of Transportation Research and Special Programs Administration6.7 U.S. Coast Guard (USCG)6.8 Department of Labor Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OSHA)6.9 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Hazardous Materials Response Branch7. State of Tennessee8. Local/Regional Responsibilities û Memphis/Shelby County, Tennessee9. Industrial and Private Initiatives9.1 CMC Community Awareness and Emergency Response Program (CAER)9.2 CMA Chemical Transportation Emergency Center (CHEMTREC)9.3 CMA CHEMNET Network9.4 CMA Chemical Referral Center (CRC)9.5 Chlorine Institute Emergency Plan (CHLOREP)9.6 NACA Pesticide Safety Team (PSTN)9.7 Association of American Railroads Field Force9.8 Hazardous Materials Advisory Council-Information Services9.9 AlChE Center for Process Safety9.10 Institute of Hazardous Materials Management10. Survey of Responsibility Gap10.1 Planning10.2 Prevention10.3 Response Systems10.4 Training11. Survey of Technical Options12. Characterization of Emergency Releases12.1 Characterization of Disaster Level12.2 Types and Extent of Response Required13. Technical Basis For Needed Countermeasures14. Evaluation of Available Resources14.1 Vapor Hazard Control14.2 Emergency Equipment14.3 Emergency Warning and Evacuation Systems14.4 Hazmat Monitoring and Ambient-Air Dispersion Modeling Systems14.5 Toxic Gas Dispersion Modeling14.6 Hazards Evaluations of Processing Facilities Handling Toxic Materials14.7 Emergency Response Information and Data Bases14.8 Community and Facility Planning for Toxic Chemical Emergencies15. New Technical Approaches15.1 Prevention of Chemical Accidents15.2 Detection and Warning Systems15.3 Minimizing Transportation Risks15.4 Large-Scale Test Facilities15.5 Miscellaneous Countermeasures16. Methodology For Ranking of Chemical Hazards16.1 Toxicity Level16.2 Fire and Explosion Hazards16.3 Mobility in the Atmosphere16.4 Domestic Production/Location16.5 Domestic Shipments16.6 Overall Rating Procedure17. Proposed Hazardous Materials Rating System17.1 Selection of Hazardous Materials17.2 Overall Categorization of Hazardous Materials17.3 Results of Material Categorization18. Summary and Conclusions for Technical Options18.1 Characterization of Emergency Releases18.2 Technical Basis for Needed Countermeasures18.3 Evaluation of Available Resources18.4 New Technical Approaches18.5 Methodology for Banking of Chemical Hazards19 References20 Appendix