This issue of Medical Clinics of North America provides the latest essential updates on coronary risk factors. The following key questions are answered. Are new biomarkers informative? LDL: the lower the better? How important is HDL? How much credit does triglyceride deserve? How important is family history of coronary disease? How important is age in determining coronary risk factors? Endothelial progenitor cells, menopause, and coronary risk factors? What is the role of imaging in prevention of coronary artery disease? Is genomics ready for primetime? Pediatric statinization? Individualized statinization? Polypill for some, polypill for all?