Conducting Organic Materials and Devices


  • Suresh Jain, National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi, India
  • M. Willander, Göteborg University and Linköping University
  • V. Kumar, National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi, India

Conducting polymers were discovered in 1970s in Japan. Since this discovery, there has been a steady flow of new ideas, new understanding, new conducing polymer (organics) structures and devices with enhanced performance. Several breakthroughs have been made in the design and fabrication technology of the organic devices. Almost all properties, mechanical, electrical, and optical, are important in organics. This book describes the recent advances in these organic materials and devices.
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Students, researchers and engineers in material science, polymers, and semiconductors


Book information

  • Published: August 2007
  • Imprint: ELSEVIER
  • ISBN: 978-0-12-752190-9

Table of Contents

Preface 1 Introduction 1.1 Advantages of conducting polymers1.2 Early attempts for applications1.3 Growth and properties1.4 Active Devices2 Polyacetylene 2.1 Structure, Growth, and properties 2.1.1 Structure2.1.2 Growth and doping of Polyacetylene2.2 Band-structure of t-PA2.3 The solitons and the polarons2.3.1 The solitons2.3.2 The polarons2.4 Transport properties2.4.1 Mobility in selected polymers2.4.2 Conductivity and susceptibility3 Optical and Transport Properties3.1 Effect of electric field on photoluminescence(PL)3.2 The dielectric constant3.3 Space Charge Limited Currents3.3.1 Early work of Mott. The Poisson and continuity equationsin a trap-free insulator3.3.2 Effect of background doping3.4 Polymers: The solids with traps3.4.1 Poisson equation with trapped charges3.4.2 Single level traps3.4.3 Gaussianly distributed traps3.5 Exponential traps3.5.1 Calculation of J(V)3.6 Relaxation of the approximation pt À p3.6.1 J V curves when pt 6À p3.6.2 Trap-filled limit3.7 Effect of finite (non-zero) Schottky barrier3.7.1 Importance of finite barriers3.7.2 Theory 3.7.3 Results and discussion3.7.4 Comparison with experiment3.8 Combined effect3.9 Temperature effects3.9.1 Temperature effects in PPV-based polymers3.9.2 Recent work 3.9.3 Temperature effects in MEH-PPV. Recent work3.9.4 Temperature Effects in Alq33.10 The mobility model of charge transport3.11 The unified model3.11.1 Shallow Gaussian and single level traps3.11.2 Unified model with exponentially distributed traps 3.12 High field or Pool-Frankel Effect3.12.1 J V characteristics 3.12.2 Calculations and comparison with experiments3.13 Mobility of charge carriers 3.13.1 Bulk materials3.13.2 Mobility in blends3.14 Important formulas3.15 Summary of this chapter4 Light Emitting Diodes and Lasers4.1 Early work4.2 Blue, green and white emission4.2.1 Blue and green LEDs 4.2.2 White light emission from Organic LEDs4.3 Comparison with other LEDs4.4 Organic solid-state lasers4.4.1 Photo pumped lasers4.4.2 Spectral Narrowing4.4.3 Blue Lasers4.5 Quantum efficiency and degradation4.6 Stability4.6.1 Degradation of the polymer4.6.2 The cathode and the black spots4.6.3 Degradation of the anode4.7 Soluble new 5-coordinated Al-complexes4.8 Summary and conclusions5 Solar cells 5.1 Introduction5.2 Solar Cells5.2.1 Single and bilayer solar cells5.2.2 Interpenetrating network of donor-acceptororganics. Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells5.3 Source of VOC in BHSCs5.3.1 Effect of acceptor strength 5.3.2 More recent work 5.4 Optimum PCBM concentration5.4.1 Superposition principle5.5 Modeling the output characteristics5.5.1 The output currents 5.5.2 The model5.6 Comparison with other solar cells5.6.1 Amorphous-Si solar cells5.6.2 Polycrystalline Si solar cells5.7 Summary and Conclusions6 Transistors 6.1 Importance of organic TFTs6.2 Early work6.3 Effect of traps6.4 High field effects6.5 Transport in polycrystalline organics6.5.1 Effect of grain boundaries6.6 Pentacene TFTs6.7 Contacts6.8 Organic Photo-transistor 6.9 Organic dielectricsBibliography