Introduction to the Field. General introduction: the field of educational linguistics (B. Spolsky). Applied linguistics (D.A. Wilkins). Educational linguistics (K. Perera). Ethics in educational linguistics (A. Davies). Linguistics and language learning (B. Spolsky). The Social Context. Society. Bilingualism, societal (M. Blanc). Diglossia (A. Hudson). Language loyalty (R. Mesthrie). Linguicide (T. Skuttnab-Kangas, R. Phillipson). Minority languages (J.M.Y. Simpson). Minority language rights (R. Phillipson, T. Skuttnab-Kangas). Multilingual states (D.D. Laitin). Multilingualism (C.B. Paulston). Socialization (C.B. Cazden). Sociolinguistics (D.R. Preston). Standardization (E. Haugen†). Sweden: immigrant languages (S. Boyd). Teaching endangered languages (L. Hinton). National Policy: National Language Policy and Education. Australian indigenous languages (T. Shopen). Australian minority languages (M. Clyne). Canadian language education policy (I. Pringle). Indian language education policy (Bh. Krishnamurti). Irish language education policy (T. Hickey). Japanese language education policy (T. Shimaoka). Language diffusion policy (C.G. MacLean). Language education policy—Africa (S.G.M. Ridge). Language education policy—Arabic speaking countries (Y. Suleiman). Language education policy-Asia (B.H. Jernudd). Language education policy—Europe (J.L.M. Trim). Language education policy—Former Soviet Union (L.A. Grenoble). Language education policy—Latin America (N.H. Hornberger). Language education policy-Pacific (R.B. Kaplan). Maori language revitalization (J.J. McCaffery). National languages (C.M. Eastman). National language policy and education (R.D. Lambert). Wales: language education policy (R. Morris Jones). Literacy and Oracy. Literacy (C.J. Daswani). Literacy: metalinguistic awareness (M. Herriman). Literacy: phonological awareness (P.E. Bryant). Literacy: research and method (D.A. Wagner). Oracy (A.M. Wilkinson). Postliteracy (L. Benton). Traditional religious education and literacy in developing countries (D.A. Wagner). The Home—School Language Gap. African American vernacular English (I.F. Hancock). Ann Arbor case (I.F. Hancock). Black English (UK) (M. Dalphinis). Educational failure (J.R. Edwards). Gender and language (J. Swann). Home and school language (M. MacLure). Prescriptive and descriptive grammar (C. Cullen). Standard English (M. Farr, A.F. Ball). The Individual Learner. Language Acquisition. Becoming bilingual (C. Letts). Grammar acquisition (H. Tager-Flushberg). Input and interaction (B.J. Richards, C. Gallaway). Language acquisition (P. Fletcher). Language acquisition: formal models and learnability (M. Atkinson). Language and the brain (J.M. Gurd, J.C. Marshall). Phonology in language acquisition (M.L. Edwards). Vocabulary in language acquisition (M.D. Barrett). Challenged Learners. Deafness and sign language instruction (S. Wilcox). Language disorders (S.L. James). Pathology: intervention (B. Byers Brown†). Pathology: overview (J.M. Cooper). Reading and writing disorders (B. Byers Brown†). The blind child (M. Garman). Second Language Processing. Age in second language learning (T. Scovel). Bilingualism, individual (F. Grosjean). Listening in a second language (M. Rost). Reading in a second language (A.H. Urquhart). Speaking in a second language (G. Yule). Writing in a second language (U. Connor). The School Context. School and Classroom. Bilingual education (M.E. Brisk). Classroom language (N. Mercer). Discourse in the language classroom (D. Allwright). Language across the curriculum (D.J. Corson). Observing classroom language (A.D. Edwards, D.P.G. Westgate).Pedagogy (A. Luke, C. Luke). School language policies (D.J. Corson). Textbooks (F.I. Davies). Dictionaries. Dictionaries for language learners (R.A. Carter, N. Schmitt). Lexicology (A.P. Cowie). Prescription in dictionaries (L.C. Mugglestone). Electronic Age. Computer-assisted language learning (J.D. Fox). Educational linguistics on the Web (L. Selinker, C. Kinahan). Language laboratory (A.G. Sciarone). New information technology in language education (E.K.L. Ng). Teaching Language. National Curricula. English teaching curriculum (England and Wales) (K. Perera).English teaching in Australia (M.O. Meiers). English teaching in Canada (I. Pringle). English teaching in England and Wales (R. Carter). English teaching in Scotland (R. Cairns). English teaching in USA (R.E Shafer†). French teaching in France (D. Ager). National oracy project (J.A. Johnson). National writing projects (P. Czerniewska). Schools council UK (J.J. Pearce). Standards, scales, and guidelines (B. Spolsky). Grammar in Mother Tongue Teaching. Grammar in British schools (A.M. Philp). Grammar (Mother Tongue) (R. Dirven). Grammar teaching (Mother Tongue) (W.B. Elley). Language awareness (E.W. Hawkins).Systemic grammar applied (C.S. Butler). Reading in the Mother Tongue. Literature teaching (R.A. Carter). Miscue analysis (H. Arnold). Readability (C. Harrison). Reading: acquisition (J. Oakhill).Reading and writing disorders: intervention (M.J. Snowling, A. Edmundson). Reading: early (J. Masterson). Reading difficulties (M.J. Snowling). Reading inventories (E. Goodacre). Reading recovery (N. Hall). Reading teaching: materials (K. Perera). Reading teaching: methods (R. Beard). Reading: testing (P.D. Pumfrey). Reading: theories (G.E. MacKinnon). Spelling in the Mother Tongue. Spelling (D. Bentley). Spelling errors: English (C. Sterling). Spelling: invented (C. Read). Spelling: learning (N. Goulandris). Spelling tests (C. Sterling). Writing in the Mother Tongue. Writing: process approach (P. Czerniewska). Writing in school (J. Harris). Writing instruction (S.W. Freedman).Teaching Additional Languages. Second and Foreign Language Learning. Basic English (W.T. Gordon). Communication strategies (N. Poulisse). Contrastive and error analysis (H. Ringbom). Culture (C. Morgan). Intercultural discourse (M. Clyne). Interlanguage (E. Tarone). Language for special purposes (A. Johns). Learning strategies (R.L. Oxford). Morphology (I.S.P. Nation). Motivation (Z. Dörnyei). Native speaker (A. Davies). Needs analysis (J.L. Clark). Second language learning (B. McLaughlin, S. Robbins). Second language learning: individual differences (R.L. Oxford). The teaching of English as a foreign language (G. Abbott). SLA (Second Language Acquisition). Lexis: acquisition (P. Meara). Phonology in second language acquisition (A.R. James). Second language acquisition: conversation (S.M. Gass). Second language acquisition: history and theories (K.R. Gregg).Second language acquisition: sign language (J.G. Kyle). Semantics (N. Dittmar). Syntax in second language acquisition (M.A. Sharwood Smith). Text (J. House). Second and Foreign Language Pedagogy. ASTP (B. Spolsky). Content-based instruction (CBI) (J. Crandall). Fluency and accuracy (I.S.P. Nation). Grammar teaching (Foreign Language) (D. Larsen-Freeman). History of second language teaching (A.P.R. Howatt). Immersion (R. Lyster). Intensity (K. Reeder). Language for special purposes: pedagogy (A. Johns). Listening: second language pedagogy (N.F. Whitney). Phonetic pedagogy (J.C. Catford). Pronunciation (D. Porter). Reading: second language (E. Williams). Second language teaching (D.A. Wilkins). Second language teaching methods (W.T. Littlewood). Speaking: second language pedagogy (M. Bygate). Starting early (J.L.M. Trim). Ulpan (B. Spolsky). Vocabulary: second language pedagogy (P.J. Scholfield). Writing: second language pedagogy (T. Hedge). Testing. Foreign language testing (R. Kelly). Language testing (B. Spolsky). Language testing: alternative methods (K. Smith).Language testing: fundamentals (A.J. Kunnan). Language testing: impact (E. Shohamy). Language testing in mother tongue (D. Spearritt). Language testing: methods (C.A. Chapelle). Language testing: users and uses (T. McNamara). The Profession. Institutions. Journals (A. Valdman). Professional associations (R. Young). Research centers (B. Spolsky). Summer institute of linguistics (J. Bendor-Samuel). People. Ascham, Roger (1515–68) (A.P.R. Howatt). Alatis, James Efstathios (1926– ) (E.M. Anthony). Candlin, Christopher N. (1940– ) (K. Sajavaara). Carroll, John Bissell (1916– ) (C.W. Stansfield). Caxton, William (ca. 1415–91) (W. Hüllen). Cazden, Courtney B. (1925– ) (P. Ulichny). Clay, Marie M. (1926– ) (S. McNaughton). Comenius, Jan Amos Komensky (1592–1670) (J.L.M. Trim).Cooper, Robert Leon (1931– ) (B. Spolsky). Corder, S. Pit (1918–90) (L. Selinker). Elphinston, James (1721–1809) (A.P.R. Howatt). Ferguson, Charles A. (1921–98) (J.A. Fishman). Finocchiaro, Mary Bonomo (1913–96) (J.E. Alatis). Fishman, Joshua A. (1926– ) (B. Spolsky). Greenbaum, Sidney (1929–96) (B. Aarts). Halliday, Michael Alexander Kirkwood (1925– ) (J. Fine). Haugen, Einar (1906–94) (N. Hasselmo). Heath, Shirley Brice (C.B. Cazden). Hill, Archibald A. (1902–92) (C.W. Hayes). Hornby, Albert Sidney (1898–1978) (A.P.R. Howatt). Hymes, Dell Hathaway (1927– ) (N.H. Hornberger). Jones, Daniel (1881–1967) (B.S. Collins). Kaplan, Robert B. (W. Grabe). Kennedy, Benjamin Hall (1804–89) (C.A. Stray).Krashen, Stephen D. (1941– ) (D.E. Eskey). Labov, William (1927– ) (S. Romaine). Lado, Robert (1915–95) (J.E. Alatis). Lambert, Wallace E. (1922– ) (G.R. Tucker). Lee, William Rowland (1911–96) (J.E. Alatis). Mulcaster, Richard (1532–1611) (A.P.R. Howatt). Nickel, Gerhard (1928– ) (K. Sajavaara).Nida, Eugene Albert (1914– ) (R.E. Longacre). Palmer, Harold Edward (1877–1949) (A.P.R. Howah). Passy, Paul Edouard (1859–1940) (J.A. Kemp). Paulston, Christina Bratt (1932– ) (M. Swain). Piaget, Jean (1896–1980) (M.L. Donaldson). Pitman, Sir Isaac (1813–97) (M.K.C. MacMahon). Quirk, Charles Randolph (1920– ) (J. Roberts). Ratke, Wolfgang (1571–1635) (J.B. Walmsley). Richards, I. A. (1893–1979) (J.P. Russo). Rivers, Wilga (1919– ) (R. Steele). Robinett, Betty Wallace (1919– ) (B.T. Downing).Smith, Henry Lee (1913–72) (C.A. Farley-Winer). Sonnenschein, Edward Adolf (1851–1929) (J.B. Walmsley). Stern, H. H. (David) (1913–87) (B. Harley, A. Weinrib). Strevens, Peter (1922–89) (H.G. Widdowson). Swain, Merrill K. (1944– ) (A. Cumming). Trim, John L.M. (J Sheils). Troike, Rudolph C. (1933– ) (G.R. Tucker). Tucker, G. Richard (1942– ) (J. Crandall). Twaddell, William Freeman (1906–82) (W.N. Francis). Valdman, Albert (1931– ) (B. Spolsky). Van Els, Theo (1936– ) (K. de Bot). Widdowson, H.G. (G. Cook).