List of contributors.Preface.Introduction.Acknowledgements.Cellular Organization and Synaptic Circuitry.1. Cellular organization of the vertebrate retina (H. Kolb, R. Nelson, P. Ahnelt, N. Cuenca). 2. Comparative anatomy of major retinal pathways in the eyes of nocturnal and diurnal mammals (K. Linberg, N. Cuenca, P. Ahnelt, S. Fisher, H. Kolb). 3. Synaptic organisation in the fly's optic lamina: few cells, many synapses and divergent microcircuits (I.A. Meinertzhagen, K.E. Sorra). 4. Complexities of retinal circuitry revealed by neurotransmitter receptor localization (C.L. Zucker, B. Ehinger). 5. Synaptic inputs to dopaminergic neurons in mammalian retinas (D.W. Marshak). 6. Molecular diversity of gap junctions between horizontal cells (U. Janssen-Bienhold, K. Schultz, W. Hoppenstedt, R. Weiler). 7. Real time imaging of the production and movement of nitric oxide in the retina (W.E. Eldred). Functional Organization.8. Integration and segregation of visual signals by bipolar cells in the tiger salamander retina (S.M. Wu, F. Gao, B.R. Maple). 9. Transmission at the photoreceptor synapse (P. Witkovsky, W. Thoreson, D. Tranchina). 10. Organization of on- and off- pathways in the zebrafish retina: neurotransmitter localization, electrophysiological responses of bipolar cells, and patterns of axon terminal stratification (V.P. Connaughton). 11. Retinal information processing and ambient illumination (R.L. Chappell). 12. Plasticity of AII amacrine cell circuitry in the mammalian retina (S.A. Bloomfield). 13. Neuromodulation of voltage-dependent K+ channels in bipolar cells: immunocytochemical and electrophysiological studies (S. Yazulla, K.M. Studholme, S.-F. Fan, C. Mora-Ferrer). 14. Synaptic mechanisms shaping the light-response in retinal ganglion cells (E.D. Cohen). 15. Parallel processing in the mammalian retina: lateral and vertical interactions across stacked representations (F. Werblin, B. Roska, D. Balya). Neurotransmission and Neuromodulation.16. Pre- and post-synaptic mechanisms of spontaneous, excitatory post-synaptic currents in the salamander retina (R.F. Miller, J. Gottesman, D. Henderson, M. Sikora, H. Kolb). 17. Physiological responses associated with kainate receptor immunoreactivity in dissociated zebrafish retinal neurons: a voltage probe study (R. Nelson, A.T. Janis, T.N. Behar, V.P. Connaughton). 18. GABA transporter function in the horizontal cells of the skate (R.P. Malchow, K.A. Andersen). 19. Physiological and pharmacological characterization of glutamate and GABA receptors on carp retinal neurons (X.-L. Yang, P. Li, T. Lu, Y. Shen, M.-H. Han). 20. The GABAc receptors of retinal neurons (H. Qian, H. Ripps). 21. Retinoic acid: a neuromodulator in the retina (R. Weiler, M. Pottek, K. Schultz, U. Janssen-Bienhold). 22. Properties of turtle retinal ganglion cell GABA receptors (E.M. Lasater, Y. Liu). Photoreceptors, Visual Adaptation and the ERG.23. The rhodopsin cycle: a twist in the tale (H. Ripps). 24. Insights into the rod rhodopsin regeneration process using the excised mouse eye (S.E. Ostroy). 25. The response gradient along the rod outer segment: cGMP, age and calcium (K.N. Leibovic). 26. The flash response of rods in vivo (D.R. Pepperberg). 27. Dark adaptation (G.L. Fain). 28. Evaluation of the contributions of recovering and GCAPs to rod photoreceptor light adaptation and recovery to the dark state (J.B. Hurley, J. Chen). 29. Light adaptation and contrast in the outer retina (D.A. Burkhardt). 30. Synaptic mechanisms of network adaptation in horizontal cells (D.G. McMahon, D.-Q. Zhang, L. Ponomareva, T. Wagner). 31. Triphasic adaptation of teleost horizontal cells (W.H. Baldridge). 32. Potassium conductances and the glutamate transporter in Müller cells of the turtle retina and their role in potassium siphoning (I. Perlman, E. Solessio, E.M. Lasater). 33. Some aspects of the oscillatory response of the retina (L. Wachtmeister). Circadian Rhythms.34. Light and circadian regulation of retinomotor movement (B. Burnside). 35. Circadian and efferent modulation of visual sensitivity (R. Barlow). 36. Circadian clock regulation of neuronal light responses in the vertebrate retina (S.C. Mangel). 37. Spinules and nematosomes in retinal horizontal cells: a "thorny" issue (J. De Juan, M. García). Development of the Retina.38. Understanding retinal cell fate determination through genetic manipulations (J.M. Fadool). 39. Genetic and epigenetic analysis of visual system function of zebrafish (L. Li). 40. Genetic analysis of initial and ongoing retinogenesis in the zebrafish: comparing the central neuroepithelium and marginal zone (B.A. Link, T. Darland). 41. Retinoic acid synthesis and breakdown in the developing mouse retina (U.C. Dräger, H. Li, E. Wagner, P. McCaffery). 42. Postnatal development of the rat retina and some of its neurotransmitter systems in vitro (K. Johansson, B. Ehinger). 43. The function of the cholinergic system in the developing mammalian retina (Z.J. Zhou). Retinal Degenerations.44. Legacy of the RCS rat: impact of a seminal study on retinal cell biology and retinal degenerative diseases (M.M. La Vail). 45. Retinal disease in vertebrates (S.E. Brockerhoff). 46. Photoreceptor rescue in an organotypic model of retinal degeneration (J. Mosinger-Ogilvie). 47. Rod-cone interdependence: implications for therapy of photoreceptor cell diseases (J.A. Sahel, S. Mohand-Said, T. Léveillard, D. Hicks, S. Picaud, H. Dreyfus). 48. Genes and diseases in man and models (G. Aguirre). 49. Experimental retinal detachment: a paradigm for understanding the effects of induced photoreceptor degeneration (S.K. Fisher, J. Stone, T.S. Rex, K.A. Linberg, G.P. Lewis). 50. The origin of photo-oxidative stress in the aging eye (R.D. Glickman). 51. Retinal ganglion cells, glaucoma and neuroprotection (S.A. Lipton). Epilogue52. Reflections and comments (J.E. Dowling). Appendix I.Appendix II.