Compounding Precipitated Silica in Elastomers
Theory and Practice
- Norman Hewitt, PPG (former).
This valuable guide to compounding elastomers with precipitated silica covers principles, properties, mixing, testing and formulations from a practical perspective. This handbook and reference manual will serve those who work on part design, elastomer formulation, manufacturing and applications of elastomers. Ample discussion of compound specifications adds to the usefulness of this book to practitioners. Comparisons of carbon black and silica compounds throughout the book allow readers to select the most suitable formulation for applications ranging from tires to electrical insulation to shoe soles. The author has over forty years of experience in the rubber industry highlighted by his 39 years at the PPG Rubber Research laboratories. A highlight of the book is the inclusion of studies conducted by the author which greatly adds to the richness of the contents.View full description
Rubber chemists and compounders in industry wherever rubber components are manufactured. Chemistry departments (those who research and teach in elastomers and polymers) in academia will find this an excellent foundation text for students and researchers. Suppliers of rubber chemicals, sales and marketing specialists in chemical and rubber companies will refer to the content in their daily duties. There is also a large market in China's growing rubber industry, as well as in the mature rubber industry in India.
- Published: April 2007
- Imprint: WILLIAM ANDREW
- ISBN: 978-0-8155-1528-9
Table of ContentsChapter 1: SILICA AS A REINFORCING FILLER 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Manufacture of Precipitated Silica 1.3 Silica and Carbon black 1.4 Silica Surface Area 1.5 Silica Free Water 1.6 Silica Free Water, Affect on Visible Dispersion 1.7 Silica Surface Silanol groups 1.8 Silica pH 1.9 Soluble Salts in Silica 1.10 Physical Form and Sensity of Silica 1.11 Other Silica Properties 1.12 Silane Treated SilicasChapter 2: COMPOUNDING PRECIPITATED SILICA IN NATURAL RUBBER 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Silica and Carbon Black 2.3 Activation: Zinc Oxide 2.4 Cure Activation: Glycols 2.5 Acceleration with Secondary Accelerators in Normal Sulfur Systems 2.6 Acceleration: Single Accelerators in Normal Sulfur Systems 2.7 Acceleration: Single Accelerators; Vulcanizate Properties 2.8 Acceleration: Low Sulfur/Sulfur Donor Systems 2.9 Reversion 2.10 Antioxidant Systems: Non-staining 2.11 Plasticization 2.12 Tear Resistance 2.13 Tear Resistance: Contour Curve Studies of Silica Content Effects 2.14 Tear Resistance: Silica Primary Particle Size 2.15 Tear Resistance; Non-Marking Solid tires 2.16 Shelf Aged Stiffness and Green Strength 2.17 Peroxide Cure 2.18 Peroxide Curing: Silica Reinforcement and Structure 2.19 Peroxide Curing: Silica Surface Area 2.20 Peroxide Cure: Silane Coupling 2.21 Silane Coupling: Sulfur Cure Systems 2.22 Zinc-Free Cure Systems 2.23 Zinc-Free Cure Systems: Polyisoprene (IR) 2.24 Brass Adhesion 2.25 Brass Adhesion Mechanism 2.26 Adhesion to Textile Fabrics; the HRH system 2.27 Fabric Adhesion: Dynamic testing 2.28 Heat Resistance Natural Rubber FormularyChapter 3: COMPOUNDING PRECIPITATED SILICA IN EMULSION SBR 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Silica and Carbon Black 3.3 Cure Systems: Activation with Glycols 3.4 Cure System: Zinc Oxide Activation 3.5 Cure System: Magnesium Oxide Activation 3.6 Cure system: Lead oxide (Litharge) Activation 3.7 Cure System: Stearic acid 3.8 Cure Systems: Primary, Secondary Accelerators 3.9 Cure Systems: Single Accelerators 3.10 Cure Systems: Sulfur Concentration 3.11 Plasticization 3.12 Antioxidants 3.13 Tear Resistance: Silica Primary Particle Size 3.14 Tear Resistance: Silica Content 3.15 Fabric Adhesion 3.16 Heat Resistance 3.17 Silane coupling 3.18 Silane Coupling: Competition Emulsion SBR FormularyChapter 4: COMPOUNDING SILICA IN ELASTOMERS SOLUTION SBR AND BR 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Silica and Carbon Black 4.3 Zinc-Free Cure Systems 4.4 Zinc-Free Cure Systems: Accelerators & Sulfur 4.5 Zinc-Free Cure Systems: Polymer Effects 4.6 Zinc-Free Cure Systems: Zinc oxide and HMT 4.7 Zinc-Free Cure Systems: Effects of Additives 4.8 Zinc-Free Cure systems: Sulfur content 4.9 Zinc-Free Cure System: Antioxidants 4.10 Zinc-Free Cure Systems: Processing 4.11 Zinc-Free Systems: Plasticizers 4.12 Zinc-Free Systems: Additive plasticizers 4.13 Silane Coupling: Pretreated Silica 4.14 Silane Coupling 4.15 Zinc-Free Cure Systems: Surface Area Effects 4.16 Zinc-Free Cure Systems: Trouser Tear Strength 4.17 Zinc-Free Cure Systems ; Silica Content 4.18 Zinc-Free Cure Systems: Durometer Equivalents Solution SBR and BR FormularyChapter 5: COMPOUNDING SILICA IN ELASTOMERS EPDM 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Silica and Carbon Black 5.3 Acceleration Systems 5.4 Low Sulfur Systems with Donors 5.5 Activation: Oxides and Glycols 5.6 Antioxidants: Heat Resistance 5.7 Zinc-Free Cure Systems 5.8 Silane Coupling 5.9 Silica Surface Area 5.10 Peroxide Cure Systems 5.11 Processing 5.12 Adhesion to Brass 5.13 Fabric Adhesion 5.14 Adhesion to Zinc (Galvanized) Coatings 5.15 Compression Fatigue Life EPDM FormularyChapter 6: COMPOUNDING PRECIPITATED SILICA IN NEOPRENE 6.1 Introduction 6.2 NSM (Type W) Neoprene: Oxide Crosslinking 6.3 NSM Neoprene (W): Organic Acceleration 6.4 NSM Neoprene: Glycol Activation 6.5 NSM Neoprene: Plasticization 6.6 NSM Neoprene: Silica and Black 6.7 Silica Surface Area 6.8 NSM Neoprene: Silane Coupling 6.9 NSM Neoprene: Fabric Adhesion 6.10 NSM Neoprene: Brass Adhesion 6.11 NSM Neoprene: Water Absorption 6.12 Sulfur Modified (SM) Neoprene: Cure Systems 6.13 SM Neoprene: Glycol Activation 6.14 SM Neoprene: Retarding Scorch 6.15 SM Neoprene: Silane Coupling 6.16 SM Neoprene: Processing 6.17 SM Neoprene: Silica Surface Area effects 6.18 SM Neoprene: Silica Free Water Content 6.19 SM Neoprene: Cord and Fabric Adhesion 6.20 SM Neoprene: Brass Adhesion Chapter 7: COMPOUNDING PRECIPITATED SILICA IN NITRILE 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Silica and Carbon Black 7.3 Silica Surface Area 7.4 NBR/PVC Blends 7.5 Acceleration: Sulfur Content 7.6 Accelerators 7.7 Activators 7.8 Silane Coupling 7.9 Peroxide Curing 7.10 Processing 7.11 Zinc-Free Cure Systems 7.12 Phenolic Resins 7.13 NBR Adhesion to Brass 7.14 NBR Adhesion to Fabric Nitrile FormularyAppendix A: COMPOUNDING BASICSAppendix B: COMPOUNDING MATERIALSAppendix C: RUBBER PROCESSINGAppendix D: PHYSICAL TESTING OF RUBBERAppendix E: COMMON COMPOUNDING ABBREVIATIONSINDEX