Comparative Osteology book cover

Comparative Osteology

A Laboratory and Field Guide of Common North American Animals

In the forensic context it is quite common for nonhuman bones to be confused with human remains and end up in the medical examiner or coroner system. It is also quite common for skeletal remains (both human and nonhuman) to be discovered in archaeological contexts. While the difference between human and nonhuman bones is often very striking, it can also be quite subtle. Fragmentation only compounds the problem. The ability to differentiate between human and nonhuman bones is dependent on the training of the analyst and the available reference and/or comparative material.

Comparative Osteology is a photographic atlas of common North American animal bones designed for use as a laboratory and field guide by the forensic scientist or archaeologist. The intent of the guide is not to be inclusive of all animals, but rather to present some of the most common species which also have the highest likelihood of being potentially confused with human remains.

Audience

Forensic anthropologists/osteologists, medical examiners/coroners, forensic professionals in law enforcement and academia, archaeologists, students in biological, biophysical, biomedical and paleontological sciences.

Spiral Bound, 460 Pages

Published: November 2011

Imprint: Academic Press

ISBN: 978-0-12-388437-4

Reviews

  • "At long last we now have a well illustrated, comprehensive photographic guide to distinguish human skeletal remains from a wide range of common animal species. Most previous guides to determine whether a bone was human or animal illustrated a very small number of non-human species.

    This atlas also illustrates a range of butchery marks and includes prehistoric (stone tools) and historic (metal cleavers, saws and knife marks) found on bones. In addition, Adams and Crabtree illustrate both adult and juvenile animal bones as well as adult and sub-adult human bones.

    This book is a must for the library of all osteologists or biological scientists called upon to identify human and non-human skeletal remains."-William Bass, Retired, Emeritus Professor of Anthropology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville


Contents

  • Chapter 1: Introduction, Scope of Book, and Credits
    Introduction
    Archaeological Context
    Forensic Context
    Book Terminology and Organization
    Background of the Specimens Included in this Book
    Photographic Credits

    Chapter 2: Crania
    Crania of Large Species
    Adult Human
    Horse
    Cow
    Bear
    Deer
    Pig
    Goat
    Sheep
    Dog
    Crania of Small Species
    Newborn Human
    Raccoon
    Opossum
    Cat
    Rabbit
    Duck
    Chicken

    Chapter 3: Humeri
    Humeri of Large Species
    Adult Human
    Horse
    Bear
    Cow
    Pig
    Dog
    Deer
    Sheep
    Goat
    Humeri of Small Species
    Newborn Human
    Turkey
    Duck
    Raccoon
    Cat
    Opossum
    Rabbit
    Chicken

    Chapter 4: Radii and Ulnae
    Radii and Ulnae of Large Species
    Adult Human
    Horse
    Cow
    Bear
    Pig
    Deer
    Dog
    Sheep
    Goat
    Radii and Ulnae of Small Species
    Newborn Human
    Turkey
    Raccoon
    Cat
    Duck
    Opossum
    Chicken
    Rabbit

    Chapter 5: Femora
    Femora of Large Species
    Adult Human
    Horse
    Cow
    Bear
    Pig
    Deer
    Dog
    Sheep
    Goat
    Femora of Small Species
    Newborn Human
    Raccoon
    Turkey
    Cat
    Rabbit
    Opossum
    Chicken
    Duck

    Chapter 6: Tibiae
    Tibiae of Large Species
    Adult Human
    Horse
    Cow
    Bear
    Deer
    Dog
    Sheep
    Pig
    Goat
    Tibiae of Small Species
    Newborn Human
    Turkey
    Chicken
    Duck
    Raccoon
    Cat
    Rabbit
    Opossum

    Chapter 7: Human (Homo sapiens)
    Cranium
    Humerus
    Radius
    Ulna
    Femur
    Tibia
    Fibula
    Scapula
    Sternum
    Pelvis
    Sacrum
    Vertebrae
    Metacarpals, Metatarsals, and Tarsals

    Chapter 8: Horse (Equus caballus)
    Cranium
    Humerus
    Radius/Ulna
    Femur
    Tibia
    Fibula
    Scapula
    Sternum
    Pelvis
    Vertebrae
    Metacarpus and Metatarsus

    Chapter 9: Cow (Bos taurus and Bos indicus)
    Cranium
    Humerus
    Radius/Ulna
    Femur
    Tibia
    Scapula
    Pelvis
    Metacarpus, Metatarsus, and Tarsals

    Chapter 10: Bear (Ursus americanus)
    Cranium
    Humerus
    Radius
    Ulna
    Femur
    Tibia
    Fibula
    Scapula
    Sternum
    Pelvis
    Sacrum
    Vertebrae
    Metacarpals, Metatarsals, and Tarsals

    Chapter 11: Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)
    Cranium
    Humerus
    Radius
    Ulna
    Femur
    Tibia
    Scapula
    Pelvis
    Sacrum
    Vertebrae
    Metacarpus, Metatarsus, and Tarsals

    Chapter 12: Pig (Sus scrofa)
    Cranium
    Humerus
    Radius/Ulna
    Femur
    Tibia
    Fibula
    Scapula
    Sternum
    Pelvis
    Vertebrae
    Metacarpals, Metatarsals, and Tarsals

    Chapter 13: Goat (Capra hircus)
    Cranium
    Humerus
    Radius
    Ulna
    Femur
    Tibia
    Scapula
    Pelvis
    Metacarpus and Metatarsus

    Chapter 14: Sheep (Ovis aries)
    Cranium
    Humerus
    Radius/Ulna
    Femur
    Tibia
    Scapula
    Pelvis
    Sacrum
    Metacarpus, Metatarsus, and Tarsals

    Chapter 15: Dog (Canis familiaris)
    Cranium
    Humerus
    Radius
    Ulna
    Femur
    Tibia
    Fibula
    Scapula
    Pelvis
    Sacrum
    Vertebrae

    Chapter 16: Raccoon (Procyon lotor)
    Cranium
    Humerus
    Radius
    Ulna
    Femur
    Tibia
    Scapula
    Pelvis
    Vertebrae and Baculum

    Chapter 17: Opossum (Didelphis virginiana)
    Cranium and Mandible
    Humerus
    Radius
    Ulna
    Femur
    Tibia
    Fibula
    Scapula
    Pelvis
    Vertebrae

    Chapter 18: Cat (Felis catus)
    Cranium
    Humerus
    Radius
    Ulna
    Femur
    Tibia
    Fibula
    Scapula
    Pelvis
    Vertebrae

    Chapter 19: Rabbit (Sylvilagus carolinensis and Oryctolagus cunniculus)
    Cranium
    Humerus
    Radius/Ulna
    Femur
    Tibia/Fibula
    Scapula
    Pelvis
    Sacrum
    Vertebra

    Chapter 20: Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo)
    Humerus
    Radius
    Ulna
    Femur
    Tibiotarsus
    Fibula
    Pectoral Girdle
    Pelvis
    Synsacrum
    Carpometacarpus

    Chapter 21: Duck (Anas platyrhynchos)
    Cranium
    Humerus
    Radius
    Ulna
    Femur
    Tibia
    Fibula
    Pectoral Girdle
    Sternum
    Pelvis
    Synsacrum
    Carpometacarpus and Tarsometatarsus

    Chapter 22: Chicken (Gallus gallus)
    Cranium
    Humerus
    Radius
    Ulna
    Femur
    Tibiotarsus
    Fibula
    Pectoral Girdle
    Sternum
    Pelvis
    Carpometacarpus and Tarsometatarsus

    Chapter 23: Miscellaneous Animals
    Subadult Skeletal Elements
    Adult Skeletal Elements
    Rat
    Bobcat
    Fox
    Turtle

    Chapter 24: Traces of Butchery and Bone Working
    Introduction
    Modern Butchery: Eighteenth Century to Present
    Butchery Using Cleavers and Heavy Knives
    Prehistoric Butchery
    Bone as a Raw Material

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