Compact Heat Exchangers
Selection, Design and OperationBy
- J.E. Hesselgreaves, Heriot-Watt University, Department of Mechanical and Chemical Engineering, James Nasmyth Building, Riccarton, Edinburgh, EH14 4AS
This book presents the ideas and industrial concepts in compact heat exchanger technology that have been developed in the last 10 years or so. Historically, the development and application of compact heat exchangers and their surfaces has taken place in a piecemeal fashion in a number of rather unrelated areas, principally those of the automotive and prime mover, aerospace, cryogenic and refrigeration sectors. Much detailed technology, familiar in one sector, progressed only slowly over the boundary into another sector. This compartmentalisation was a feature both of the user industries themselves, and also of the supplier, or manufacturing industries. These barriers are now breaking down, with valuable cross-fertilisation taking place.
One of the industrial sectors that is waking up to the challenges of compact heat exchangers is that broadly defined as the process sector. If there is a bias in the book, it is towards this sector. Here, in many cases, the technical challenges are severe, since high pressures and temperatures are often involved, and working fluids can be corrosive, reactive or toxic. The opportunities, however, are correspondingly high, since compacts can offer a combination of lower capital or installed cost, lower temperature differences (and hence running costs), and lower inventory. In some cases they give the opportunity for a radical re-think of the process design, by the introduction of process intensification (PI) concepts such as combining process elements in one unit. An example of this is reaction and heat exchange, which offers, among other advantages, significantly lower by-product production.
To stimulate future research, the author includes coverage of hitherto neglected approaches, such as that of the Second Law (of Thermodynamics), pioneered by Bejan and co- workers. The justification for this is that there is increasing interest in life-cycle and sustainable approaches to industrial activity as a whole, often involving exergy (Second Law) analysis. Heat exchangers, being fundamental components of energy and process systems, are both savers and spenders of exergy, according to interpretation.
This book will be of primary interest to practising and research engineers in user, contractor and manufacturing sectors of industry. Researchers and graduate students in academia will also find it invaluable.
Hardbound, 416 Pages
Published: May 2001
- Chapter 1. Introduction.
Recent developments in compact exchanger technology. Basic aspects of compactness. Scaling laws for heat exchangers. The relationship of compactness and enhancement. The function of secondary surfaces (fins). Compactness and its relationship to enhanced boiling surfaces, rib roughnesses, etc. Surface optimisation. Heat exchanger reactors. References.
Chapter 2. Industrial Compact Exchangers.
The Plate-Fin Heat Exchangers (PFHE). Tube-fin heat exchangers. Diffusion bonded heat exchangers. The printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE). Welded plate heat exchangers. Plate and Frame Heat Exchangers (PHE) and derivatives. The Plate and Shell Heat Exchanger (PSHE). Spiral Heat Exchangers (SHE). Compact Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers. Polymer Exchangers. Some recent developments. Heat Exchanger Reactors. Surface selection. References.
Chapter 3. The Heat Exchanger as Part of a System: Exergetic (Second Law) Analysis.
Introduction. Basic Principles of Exergy Analysis. Application of Exergy Analysis to Heat Exchangers. Zero Pressure Drop. Finite Pressure Drop. Implications of the Entropy Minimisation Analysis for Selection and Design Application To Heat Exchanger Networks. References.
Chapter 4. Surface Comparisons, Size, Shape and Weight Relationships.
Introduction. Conventional Theory (The Core Mass Velocity Equation, and Geometrical Consequences). Laminar Flow Analysis. Comparison of Compact Surfaces. Comparison of Conventional and Laminar Approaches. References.
Chapter 5. Surface Types and Correlations.
Introduction. Ducts. Plate- Fin Surfaces. Pressed Plate Type Surfaces. Plate and Shell Surfaces. Other Plate-Type Surfaces (Welded Plates etc.). Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger (PCHE) Surfaces. References.
Chapter 6. Thermal Design.
Introduction. Form of specification. Basic Concepts and Initial Size Assessment. Details of the Design Process. Design for Two- Phase Flows. The design process. Thermal Design for Heat Exchanger Reactors. Mechanical Aspects of Design. References.
Chapter 7. Compact Heat Exchangers In Practice.
Installation. Commissioning. Operation. Maintenance. Design Approaches to Reduce Fouling. Fouling Factors. References.
Nomenclature. Conversion factors. Software organisations and awareness groups. List of manufacturers. Physical properties.