Combustion Processes in Propulsion book cover

Combustion Processes in Propulsion

Control, Noise, and Pulse Detonation

Chemical propulsion comprises the science and technology of using chemical reactions of any kind to create thrust and thereby propel a vehicle or object to a desired acceleration and speed. This book focuses on recent advances in the design of very highly efficient, low-pollution-emitting propulsion systems, as well as advances in testing, diagnostics and analysis. It offers unique coverage of Pulse Detonation Engines, which add tremendous power to jet thrust by combining high pressure with ignition of the air/fuel mixture. Readers will learn about the advances in the reduction of jet noise and toxic fuel emissions—something that is being heavily regulated by relevant government agencies.

Professional engineers in mechanical, aerospace, and chemical engineering, particularly those involved with combustion engineering. Manufacturing engineers in the aeronautical and defense industries. Students in mechanical, aerospace, materials and chemical engineering.

Hardbound, 480 Pages

Published: October 2005

Imprint: Butterworth Heinemann

ISBN: 978-0-12-369394-5


  • “This collection represents the current state-of-the-art in combustion research for air-breathing chemical propulsion. Nearly an equal mix of computational and experimental results are presented from the major players in Pulse Detonation Engines research, providing the reader with a thorough overview of the contemporary technical issues remaining to be resolved in this promising hypersonic air-breathing propulsion technology.” — W.L. Roberts and T. D. Scharton, Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, North Carolina State University, NC, USA


  • Chapter 1:Simultaneous Velocity and Temperature Field Measurements of a Jet Flame L. Lourenco and E. Koc-Alkislar1.1 Introduction 1.2 Test Arrangement and Results 1.3 Concluding Remarks Acknowledgments Chapter 2: Infrared Absorption Tomography for Active Combustion Control F. C. Gouldin and J. L. Edwards2.1 Introduction 2.2 Absorption Tomography2.3 Infrared Absorption and Flow Facility2.4 Proper Orthogonal Decomposition 2.5 Results2.6 Concluding Remarks References Chapter 3: Deterministic and Probabilistic Approaches for Prediction of Two-Phase Turbulent Flow in Liquid-Fuel Combustors G. B. Jacobs, R.V.R. Pandya, B. Shotorban, Z. Gao, and F. Mashayek3.1 Introduction 3.2 Direct Numerical Simulation of Countercurrent Shear Flow 3.3 Probability Density Function Modeling 3.4 Concluding Remarks Acknowledgments References Chapter 4: Large-Scale Simulations of Turbulent Combustion and Propulsion Systems A. Afshari and F. A. Jaberi4.1 Introduction 4.2 Theoretical/Computational Approach 4.3 Results and Discussion Acknowledgments References Chapter 5: Direct Simulation of Primary Atomization D. P. Schmidt5.1 Introduction 5.2 Past Work 5.3 Objectives 5.4 Methodology 5.5 Tasks Acknowledgments References Chapter 6: Extinction and Relight in Opposed Premixed Flames E. Korusoy and J.H. Whitelaw6.1 Introduction 6.2 Experimental Setup6.3 Results6.4 Concluding Remarks Acknowledgments References Chapter 7: In uence of Markstein Number on the Parametric Acoustic Instability N. J. Killingsworth and R. C. Aldredge7.1 Introduction 7.2 Experimental Procedure 7.3 Results7.4 Concluding Remarks Acknowledgments References Chapter 8: Prevaporized JP-10 Combustion and the Enhanced Production of Turbulence Using Countercurrent Shear D. J. Forliti, A.A. Behrens, B.A. Tang, and P. J. Strykowski8.1 Introduction 8.2 Prevaporized JP-10 Combustion 8.3 Combustion Facilities 8.4 Results and Discussion: Combustion Studies 8.5 Enhanced Production of Turbulence 8.6 Shear Layer Facility 8.7 Results and Discussion: Shear Layer Studies 8.8 Concluding Remarks Acknowledgments References Chapter 9: Mixing Control for Jet Flows M. Krsti9.1 Introduction 9.2 Jet Flow Model and Simulation Techniques 9.3 Simulation of Open-Loop Jet Flow 9.4 Destabilization and Mixing of Massless Particles 9.5 Mixing of Particles with Mass 9.6 Mixing of Passive ScalarAcknowledgments Chapter 10: Characteristics and Control of a Multiswirl Spray Combustor E. J. Gutmark, G. Li, and S. Abraham10.1 Introduction 10.2 Experimental Setup 10.3 Results and Discussions 10.4 Particle Image Velocimetry Results 10.5 Concluding Remarks Acknowledgments References Chapter 11: Swirling Jet Systems for Combustion ControlF. F. Grinstein and T. R. Young11.1 Introduction 11.2 Numerical Simulation Model 11.3 Swirl Initial Conditions 11.4 Results and Discussion 11.5 Concluding Remarks Acknowledgments References Chapter 12: Control of Flame Structure in Spray Combustion A. K. Gupta, B. Habibzadeh, S. Archer, and M. Linck 12.1 Introduction 12.2 Experimental Facility 12.3 Results 12.4 Concluding Remarks Acknowledgments References Chapter 13: Porous Media Burners for Clean EnginesJ. J. Witton and E. Noordally13.1 Introduction 13.2 Experimental Setup 13.3 Concluding Remarks Acknowledgments References Chapter 14:Simulations of a Porous Burner for a Gas Turbine J. L. Ellzey, A. J. Barra, and G. Diepvens14.1 Introduction 14.2 Numerical Method14.3 Results 14.4 Concluding Remarks Acknowledgments References Chapter 15: Characteristics and Control of Combustion Instabilities in a Swirl-Stabilized Spray Combustor S. Acharya and J.H. Uhm15.1 Introduction 15.2 Experimental Setup 15.3 Results and Discussions 15.4 Concluding Remarks Acknowledgments References Chapter 16: Combustion and Mixing Control Studies for Advanced Propulsion B. Pang, S. Cipolla, O. Hsu, V. Nenmeni, and K. Yu16.1 Introduction 16.2 Vortex-Stabilized Flames and Heat Release 16.3 Dump Combustor Characterization and Liquid-Fueled Active Control 16.4 High-Enthalpy Inlet Experiment and Critical Fuel-Flux Model 16.5 Passive Control of Supersonic Mixing Acknowledgments References Chapter 17: Active Pattern Factor Control on an Advanced CombustorS. C. Creighton and J.A. Lovett17.1 Introduction 17.2 Fuel Delivery System 17.3 Fuel Control Valves 17.4 Optical Sensors 17.5 Computational Results17.6 Concluding Remarks Acknowledgments References Chapter 18: System Design Methods for Simultaneous Optimal Control of Combustion Instabilities and EfficencyW. T. Baumann, W. R. Saunders, and U. Vandsburger 18.1 Introduction 18.2 Pulsed and Subharmonic Control 18.3 Least-Mean-Square-Based Algorithms 18.4 Direct Optimization Algorithms 18.5 Concluding Remarks Acknowledgments References Chapter 19: Model-Based Optimal Active Control of Liquid-Fueled Combustion Systems D. Wee, S. Park, T. Yi, A. M. Annaswamy, and A. F. Ghoniem19.1 Introduction 19.2 Shear-Flow Driven Combustion Instability 19.3 A Recursive Proper Orthogonal Decomposition Algorithm for Flow Control Problems 19.4 Adaptive Low-Order Posi-Cast Control of a Combustor Test-Rig Model 19.5 Concluding Remarks Acknowledgments References SECTION TWO:HIGH-SPEED JET NOISE Chapter 1: Aeroacoustics and Emissions Studies of Swirling Combustor FlowsS. H. Frankel, J. P. Gore, and L. Mongeau1.1 Introduction 1.2 Previous Work 1.3 Preliminary Work 1.4 Future Plan 1.5 Concluding Remarks Acknowledgments References Chapter 2: Considerations for the Measurement of Very-High-Amplitude Noise Fields A. A. Atchley and T.B. Gabrielson2.1 Introduction 2.2 Technical Approach2.3 Concluding Remarks Acknowledgments ReferencesChapter 3: High-Speed Jet Noise Reduction Using MicrojetsA. Krothapalli, B. Greska, and V. Arakeri3.1 Introduction 3.2 Experimental Setup and Procedures 3.3 Results and Discussion 3.4 Concluding Remarks Acknowledgments References Chapter 4: Acoustic Test Flight Results with Prediction for the F/A-18 E/F Aircraft During FCLP MissionJ. M. Seiner, L. Ukeiley, and B. J. Jansen4.1 Introduction 4.2 Acoustic Flight-Test Preparation 4.3 Systems Noise Prediction of Flight-Test Points 4.4 Model-Scale Developments4.5 Bluebell Nozzle Application 4.6 Concluding Remarks and Future Plans Acknowledgments References Chapter 5: Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations of Supersonic Jet-Noise Reduction ConceptsS. M. Dash, D.C. Kenzakowski, C. Kannepalli,J. D. Chenoweth, and N. Sinha5.1 Introduction 5.2 Microjet Injection Studies 5.3 F/A-18 E/F Model Studies 5.4 Concluding Remarks Acknowledgments References SECTION THREE:PULSE DETONATION ENGINESChapter 1: Investigation of Spray Detonation Characteristics Using a Controlled, Homogeneously Seeded Two-Phase Mixture B. M. Knappe and C. F. Edwards1.1 Introduction 1.2 Experimental Setup: Tube Seeding 1.3 Experimental Setup: Detonation Tube 1.4 Results: Two-Phase Mixture Homogeneity 1.5 Results: Two-Phase Detonation of Hexane 1.6 Concluding Remarks Acknowledgments Chapter 2: Deagration-to-Detonation Studies for Multicycle PDE ApplicationsR. J. Santoro, S.-Y. Lee, C. Conrad, J. Brumberg,S. Saretto, S. Pal, and R.D. Woodward2.1 Introduction 2.2 Experimental Setup 2.3 Results and Discussion 2.4 Concluding Remarks Acknowledgments References Chapter 3: Initiator Diraction Limits in a Pulse Detonation EngineC. M. Brophy, J.O. Sinibaldi, and D. W. Netzer3.1 Introduction 3.2 Experimental Setup 3.3 Results3.4 Concluding Remarks Acknowledgments References Chapter 4: The Role of Geometrical Factors in Deagration-to-Detonation TransitionN. N. Smirnov, V. F. Nikitin, V. M. Shevtsova, and J.C. Legros4.1 Introduction 4.2 Numerical Studies of Combustion Propagation Regimes 4.3 Turbulizing Chambers at the Ignition Section 4.4 Turbulizing Chambers along the Tube 4.5 Turbulizing Chambers at the Far-End of the Tube 4.6 Effect of Initial Temperature 4.7 Concluding Remarks Acknowledgments References Chapter 5: Pseudospark-Based Pulse Generator for Corona-Assisted Combustion ExperimentsA. Kuthi, J. Liu, C. Young, L.-C. Lee, and M. Gundersen5.1 Introduction 5.2 Design 5.3 Operation 5.4 Concluding Remarks Acknowledgments References Chapter 6: Breakup of Droplets under Shock ImpactC. Segal, A. Chandy, and D. Mikolaitis6.1 Introduction 6.2 Experimental Setup6.3 Results6.4 Concluding Remarks Acknowledgments References Chapter 7: Impulse Production by Injecting Fuel-Rich Combustion Products in Air A. A. Borisov 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Experimental Study 7.3 Experimental Results 7.4 Numerical Modeling 7.5 Discussion 7.6 Concluding Remarks Acknowledgments Chapter 8: Thermodynamic Evaluation of the Dual-Fuel PDE Concept S. M. Frolov and N.M. Kuznetsov8.1 Introduction 8.2 Liquid-Vapor Phase Equilibrium Curves for Individual Components 8.3 Calculation of the Total Pressure of Two-Phase System at Isotherms 8.4 Results of Total Pressure Calculations 8.5 Calculation of Activity CoeÆcients and Gas-Phase Composition 8.6 Ideal Solution Approximation 8.7 Ternary System Water - Hydrogen Peroxide - Air 8.8 Ternary System Water - Hydrogen Peroxide - Jet Propulsion Fuel 8.9 Concluding RemarksAcknowledgments References Chapter 9: Thermal Decomposition of JP-10 Studied by Microflow Tube Pyrolysis{Mass Spectrometry) R. J. Green, S. Nakra, and S. L. Anderson9.1 Introduction 9.2 Experimental Setup . 9.3 Results and Discussion 9.4 Concluding Remarks Acknowledgments References Chapter 10: Laser Diagnostics and Combustion Chemistry for Pulse Detonation EnginesR. K. Hanson, D.W. Mattison, L. Ma, D. F. Davidson, and S. T. Sanders10.1 Introduction 10.2 Wavelength-Agile Temperature and Pressure Sensor 10.3 Propane Sensor 10.4 Ethylene-Based Active Control 10.5 Two-Phase Mixture Diagnostic 10.6 Shock-Tube Studies 10.7 Concluding RemarksAcknowledgments References Chapter 11: Computational Studies of Pulse Detonation EnginesK. Kailasanath, C. Li, and S. Cheatham11.1 Introduction 11.2 Performance Estimates of an Idealized Pulse DetonationEngine 11.3 Thermodynamic Cycle Analysis . .11.4 Detonation Transition 11.5 Multiphase Detonations 11.6 Concluding Remarks Acknowledgments References Chapter 12: Simulation of Direct Initiation of Detonation Using Realistic Finite-Rate ModelsK.-S. Im and S.-T. J. Yu12.1 Introduction 12.2 Theoretical Model 12.3 Results and Discussions12.4 Concluding Remarks Acknowledgments References Chapter 13: System Performance and Thrust Chamber Optimization of Air-Breathing Pulse Detonation Engines V. Yang, F. H. Ma, and J. Y. Choi13.1 Introduction 13.2 Effect of Nozzle Conguration on PDE Performance 13.3 Single-Tube Thrust Chamber Dynamics 13.4 Multitube Thrust Chamber Dynamics13.5 Concluding Remarks AcknowledgmentsReferences Chapter 14: Software Development for Automated Parametric Study and Performance Optimization of Pulse Detonation Engines J. L. Cambier and M.R. Amin14.1 Introduction 14.2 Object-Oriented Design 14.3 Virtual Design Environment 14.4 Approach and Results 14.5 Concluding Remarks Acknowledgments References


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