Cleaning with Solvents: Science and Technology


  • John Durkee, Ph.D., P.E., Consultant in Cleaning Technology and Processes, Texas, USA

High-precision cleaning is required across a wide range of sectors, including aerospace, defense, medical device manufacturing, pharmaceutical processing, semiconductor/electronics, etc.

Cleaning parts and surfaces with solvents is simple, effective and low-cost. Although health and safety and environmental concerns come into play with the use of solvents, this book explores how safe and compliant solvent-based cleaning techniques can be implemented. A key to this is the selection of the right solvent. The author also examines a range of newer "green" solvent cleaning options.

This book supplies scientific fundamentals and practical guidance supported by real-world examples. Durkee explains the three principal methods of solvent selection: matching of solubility parameters, reduction of potential for smog formation, and matching of physical properties. He also provides guidance on the safe use of aerosols, wipe-cleaning techniques, solvent stabilization, economics, and many other topics.

A compendium of blend rules is included, covering the physical, chemical, and environmental properties of solvents.

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Engineers and scientists involved in precision cleaning across sectors including aerospace, defense, medical device manufacturing, pharmaceutical processing, semiconductor / electronics, etc.


Book information

  • Published: December 2013
  • ISBN: 978-1-4557-3131-2

Table of Contents




What You Can Do with This Book

A Note on Organization

Units Used in This Book

External References Cited in This Book

1. Relationship of Solvent Properties to Structure

2. Solubility Scales (Parameters)

3. Solvent Selection for Specific Tasks

4. SHE Management (Solvent Substitution)

5. Toxicology of Cleaning Solvents

6. The VOC Exemption Game

7. Economics of Solvent Use

8. Solvent Azeotropes

9. Wipe Cleaning with Solvents

10. Cleaning with Solvent Aerosols

11. Stabilization of Solvents

12. Solvent Cleaning: Questions and Answers

Group A: Basic Information

A1. Basic Data about Cleaning Solvents

A2. Estimation of Properties of Solvent Blends

A3. Derivation of Blend Rule for Solubility Parameters

A4. Compatibility of Wipe Cleaning Solvents with Surface Materials and Protective Gloves (With Database)

A5. Management of Flow of Cleaning Solvents to Wet Surfaces (The Wettability Index and the Dimensionless Ohnesorge Number)

Group B: Reduction of Ozone Formation by VOCs

B1. Chemistry of Atmospheric Reactions of VOCs Leading to Smog

B2. Calculation of MIR through Group Contribution Methods

Group C: Solubility Parameters

C1. Optimization Method for Determination of Solubility Parameters

C2. Estimation of Hansen Solubility Parameters (HSP) from Binary Data-PES

C3. Estimation of HSP from Multilevel Data-Bitumen

C4. Estimation of HSP from Solvent Mixtures

C5. Estimation of HSP from Correlations

C6. Estimation of HSP using the “Pythagorean Theorem”

C7. Estimation of HSP from an Equation of State

C8. Estimation of HSP from Group Contribution Methods

C9. Estimation of HSP for Soil Mixtures

C10. Hoy Solubility Parameters

C11. Values of Hansen Solubility Parameters for Solvents, Soils, and Polymers

C12. The Teas Graph

Group D: Solvent Substitution

D1. Examples and Methodology of Solvent Substitution

D2. Examples of Solvent Substitution to Achieve VOC Reduction