Chemical Weapons Destruction and Explosive Waste

Unexploded Ordinance Remediations


  • Robert Noyes, Noyes Publications

Some of the more difficult environmental problems facing the Department of Defense (DOD) include (1) chemical weapons destruction, (2) explosive waste remediation, and (3) unexploded ordnance clearance and extraction. It is conceivable that $50 to $100 billion will be spent by DOD for these three programs, offering unusual opportunities for environmental engineering and related firms. Military installations are similar to small cities in terms of population, industrial activities, and some types of contaminated sites. However, some cover an area larger than a small state. DOD has operated industrial facilities on its installations for several decades that have generated, stored, recycled, or disposed of hazardous wastes. Many of these activities have contaminated the nearby soil and groundwater. To study and clean up contaminated sites, DOD established the Installation Restoration Program (IRP) in 1975. In 1984, the IRP was made part of the Defense Environmental Restoration Program.The Secretary of Defense delegated cleanup responsibility to the Army, Navy, the Air Force, and the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA). Cleanup actions are usually accomplished under contract with private firms, which are monitored by the services. Most cleanup actions are funded through the Defense Environmental Restoration Account (DERA) and the Base Realignment and Closure Account. Congress established DERA in 1984 to fund the cleanup of inactive contaminated sites on DOD installations.The technology to clean up the conventional hazardous wastes on DOD sites are the same as those utilized for industrial sites, and well-documented by this publisher.However, there are three DOD programs that require the utilization of somewhat unusual or different technologies that have not been as well documented. These three programs are:1. Chemical weapons destruction2. Remediation of explosives contaminated soils and lagoons3. Unexploded ordnance detection, clearance, and extractionThis book discusses the current and potential treatment technologies involved in these three programs.
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Firms taking part in Department of Defense funded cleanup programs.


Book information

  • Published: December 1996
  • ISBN: 978-0-8155-1406-0

Table of Contents

Part I: Chemical Weapons Destruction1. Introduction 1.1 Lethal Agents: World War I, up to World War II 1.2 Lethal Agents (Nerve Agents): From World War II to date 1.3 Nonlethal Agents 1.4 Proliferation Concerns 1.5 U.S. Army Organizations2. Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program 2.1 Background 2.2 Costs 2.3 Risk Considerations 2.4 Emergency Response/Health/Safety3. Baseline Incineration 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Baseline Incineration Process 3.3 Operational Difficulties 3.4 Health and Safety 3.5 Air Filtration System 3.6 Advantages and Disadvantages of Baseline Incineration 3.7 Advantages and Disadvantages of Alternatives to Baseline Incinceration 3.8 Dunnage Incinerator4. Alternatives to Incineration 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Advantages and Disadvantages of Selected Alternative Technologies5. Nonstockpile Program 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Materiel and Locations 5.3 Environmental Considerations 5.4 Emergency Destruction Methods for Recovered, Explosively Configured, Chemical Warfare Munitions6. Canadian Experience 6.1 Waste Inventory 6.2 Operational Concept 6.3 Public Consultation 6.4 Environmental Assessment 6.5 Agent Destruction Operations 6.6 Destruction Process Performance 6.7 ConclusionsPart II: Explosive Waste Remediation7. Introduction 7.1 Types of Explosive Waste 7.2 Sources of Explosive Waste 7.3 Explosive Nature and Safety 7.4 Technology Needs 7.5 Government Contacts8. Biological Treatment Process 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Composting 8.3 Land Farming 8.4 Aqueous Phase Bioreactor Treatment 8.5 White Rot Fungus Treatment 8.6 In Situ Biological Treatment 8.7 Aqueous Munitions Waste Streams 8.8 Other Biological Processes for TNT9. Thermal/Oxidation Processes 9.1 Open Burn/Open Detonation 9.2 Incineration 9.3 Ultraviolet Oxidation 9.4 Wet Air Oxidation 9.5 Low Temperature Thermal Desorption 9.6 Base Hydrolysis and Hydrothermal Processing 9.7 Molten Salt Destruction10. Other Processes 10.1 Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) 10.2 Volume Reduction (Soil Washing) 10.3 Solvent Extraction 10.4 Chemical Degradation/Densitization 10.5 Other Processes11. Explosives Contaminated Debris 11.1 Typical Wastes Treated 11.2 Pretreatment 11.3 Thermal/Hot-Gas Decontamination 11.4 Physical Size Reduction 11.5 Enhanced Soil Washing with Surfactants or other Solubility EnhancersPart III: Unexploded Ordnance12. UXO Detection, Clearance, and Extraction 12.1 Introduction 12.2 Detection/Location/Identification 12.3 Excavation/Retrieval 12.4 UXO Disposal/Neutralization/Demilitarization 12.5 Landmines 12.6 Organizations Involved13. Recycling and Reuse 13.1 Propellant and Explosive Extraction 13.2 Propellant and Explosive Reuse 13.3 Propellant and Explosive Conversion to Basic Chemicals14. Destroying and Recycling Materials Resulting from Dismantling Nuclear Weapons 14.1 Primary Destruction Techniques 14.2 Waste Preparation and Feeding 14.3 Cost Estimates 14.4 TATB Explosives RecycleSources of InformationIndex