Chemical Process Equipment revised 2E

Selection and Design

By

  • James R. Couper, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, USA
  • W. Roy Penney, Professor Emeritus, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, USA
  • James R. Fair, PhD, Professor Emeritus, Department of Chemical Engineering, UT Austin, USA

A facility is only as efficient and profitable as the equipment that is in it: this highly influential book is a powerful resource for chemical, process, or plant engineers who need to select, design or configures plant sucessfully and profitably. It includes updated information on design methods for all standard equipment, with an emphasis on real-world process design and performance.
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Audience

Practicing chemical engineers (e.g. process engineers, design engineers, mechanical engineers) in chemical, petroleum, pharmaceutical and plastics industries as well as consulting engineers.

 

Book information

  • Published: August 2009
  • Imprint: GULF PROFESSIONAL PUBLISHING
  • ISBN: 978-0-12-372506-6


Table of Contents

PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION

PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION

CONTRIBUTORS

CHAPTER 0 RULES OF THUMB: SUMMARY

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

1.1. Process Design
1.2. Equipment
1.3. Categories of Engineering Practice
1.4. Sources of Information for Process Design
1.5. Codes, Standards, and Recommended Practices
1.6. Material and Energy Balances
1.7. Economic Balance
1.8. Design Safety Factors
1.9. Safety of Plant and Environment
1.10. Steam and Power Supply
1.11. Design Basis
1.12. Laboratory and Pilot Plant Work
References

CHAPTER 2 FLOWSHEETS

2.1. Block Flowsheets
2.2. Process Flowsheets
2.3. Process and Instrumentation Diagrams (P&ID)
2.4. Utility Flowsheets
2.5. Drawing of Flowsheets
References

CHAPTER 3 PROCESS CONTROL

3.1. The Feedback Control Loop
3.2. Control Loop Performance and Tuning Procedures
3.3. Single Stream Control
3.4. Unit Operation Control
References

CHAPTER 4 DRIVERS FOR MOVING EQUIPMENT

4.1. Motors
4.2. Steam Turbines and Gas Expanders
4.3. Combustion Gas Turbines and Engines
References

CHAPTER 5 TRANSFER OF SOLIDS

5.1. Slurry Transport
5.2. Pneumatic Conveying
5.3. Mechanical Conveyors and Elevators
5.4. Chutes
5.5. Solids Feeders
References

CHAPTER 6 FLOW OF FLUIDS

6.1. Properties and Units
6.2. Energy Balance of a Flowing Fluid
6.3. Liquids
6.4. Pipeline Networks
6.5. Optimum Pipe Diameter
6.6. Non-Newtonian Fluids
6.7. Gases
6.8. Liquid-Gas Flow in Pipelines
6.9. Granular and Packed Beds
6.10. Gas-Solid Transfer
6.11. Fluidization of Beds of Particles with Gases
References

CHAPTER 7 FLUID TRANSPORT EQUIPMENT

7.1. Piping
7.2. Pump Theory
7.3. Pump Characteristics
7.4. Criteria for Selection of Pumps
7.5. Equipment for Gas Transport
7.6. Theory and Calculations of Gas Compression
7.7. Ejector and Vacuum Systems
References

CHAPTER 8 HEAT TRANSFER AND HEAT EXCHANGERS 159

8.1. Conduction of Heat
8.2. Mean Temperature Difference
8.3. Heat Transfer Coefficients
8.4. Data of Heat Transfer Coefficients
8.5. Pressure Drop in Heat Exchangers
8.6. Types of Heat Exchangers
8.7. Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers
8.8. Condensers
8.9. Reboilers
8.10. Evaporators
8.11. Fired Heaters
8.12. Insulation of Equipment
8.13. Refrigeration
References

CHAPTER 9 DRYERS AND COOLING TOWERS

9.1. Interaction of Air and Water
9.2. Rate of Drying
9.3. Classification and General Characteristics of Dryers
9.4. Batch Dryers
9.5. Continuous Tray and Conveyor Belt Dryers
9.6. Rotary Cylindrical Dryers
9.7. Drum Dryers for Solutions and Slurries
9.8. Pneumatic Conveying Dryers
9.9. Flash and Ring Dryers
9.10. Fluidized Bed Dryers
9.11. Spray Dryers
9.12. Cooling Towers
References

CHAPTER 10 MIXING AND AGITATION

10.1. A Basic Stirred Tank Design
10.2. Vessel Flow Patterns
10.3. Agitator Power Requirements
10.4. Impeller Pumping
10.5. Tank Blending
10.6. Heat Transfer
10.7. Vortex Depth
10.8. Solid Suspension
10.9. Solids Dissolving
10.10. Gas-Liquid Dispersions
10.11. Liquid-Liquid (L-L) Dispersions
10.12. Pipeline Mixers
10.13. Compartmented Columns
10.14. Fast Competitive/Consecutive (C/C) Reactions
10.15. Scale-Up
Nomenclature
References

CHAPTER 11 SOLID-LIQUID SEPARATION

11.1. Processes and Equipment
11.2. Liquid-Particle Characteristics
11.3. Theory of Filtration
11.4. Resistance to Filtration
11.5. Thickening and Clarifying
11.6. Laboratory Testing and Scale-Up
11.7. Illustrations of Equipment
11.8. Applications and Performance of Equipment
References

CHAPTER 12 DISINTEGRATION, AGGLOMERATION, AND SIZE SEPARATION OF PARTICULATE SOLIDS

12.1. Screening
12.2. Commercial Classification with Streams of Air or Water
12.3. Size Reduction
12.4. Equipment for Size Reduction
12.5. Particle Size Enlargement (Agglomeration)
References

CHAPTER 13 DISTILLATION AND GAS ABSORPTION

13.1. Vapor-Liquid Equilibria
13.2. Single-Stage Flash Calculations
13.3. Evaporation or Simple Distillation
13.4. Binary Distillation
13.5. Batch Distillation
13.6. Multicomponent Separation: General Considerations
13.7. Estimation of Reflux and Number of Trays (Fenske-Underwood-Gilliland Method)
13.8. Absorption Factor Shortcut Method of Edmister
13.9. Separations in Packed Towers
13.10. Basis for Computer Evaluation of Multicomponent Separations
13.11. Special Kinds of Distillation Processes
13.12. Tray Towers
13.13. Packed Towers
13.14. Efficiencies of Trays and Packings
References

CHAPTER 14 EXTRACTION AND LEACHING

14.1. Introduction
14.2. Equilibrium Relations
14.3. Calculation of Stage Requirements
14.4. Countercurrent Operation
14.5. Leaching of Solids
14.6. Numerical Calculation of Multicomponent Extraction
14.7. Equipment for Extraction
14.8. Pilot Testing
References

CHAPTER 15 ADSORPTION AND ION EXCHANGE

15.1. Adsorption Equilibria
15.2. Ion Exchange Equilibria
15.3. Adsorption Behavior in Packed Beds
15.4. Gas Adsorption Cycles
15.5. Adsorption Design and Operating Practices
15.6. Parametric Pumping
15.7. Ion Exchange Design and Operating Practices
15.8. Production Scale Chromatography
15.9. Equipment and Processes
References

CHAPTER 16 CRYSTALLIZATION FROM SOLUTIONS AND MELTS

16.1. Some General Crystallization Concepts
16.2. Importance of the Solubility Curve in Crystallizer Design
16.3. Solubilities and Equilibria
16.4. Crystal Size Distribution
16.5. The Process of Crystallization
16.6. The Ideal Stirred Tank
16.7. Kinds of Crystallizers
16.8. Melt Crystallization and Purification
References

CHAPTER 17 CHEMICAL REACTORS

17.1. Design Basis and Space Velocity
17.2. Rate Equations and Operating Modes
17.3. Material and Energy Balances of Reactors
17.4. Nonideal Flow Patterns
17.5. Selection of Catalysts
17.6. Types and Examples of Reactors
17.7. Heat Transfer in Reactors
17.8. Classes of Reaction Processes and Their Equipment
References

CHAPTER 18 PROCESS VESSELS

18.1. Drums
18.2. Fractionator Reflux Drums
18.3. Liquid-Liquid Separators
18.4. Gas-Liquid Separators
18.5. Storage Tanks
18.6. Mechanical Design of Process Vessels
18.7. Bins and Hoppers
References

CHAPTER 19 MEMBRANE SEPARATIONS

19.1. Membrane Processes
19.2. Liquid-Phase Separations
19.3. Gas Permeation
19.4. Membrane Materials and Applications
19.5. Membrane Cells and Equipment Configurations
19.6. Industrial Applications
19.7. Subquality Natural Gas
19.8. The Enhancement of Separation
19.9. Permeability Units
19.10. Derivations and Calculations for Single-Stage Membrane Separations
References

CHAPTER 20 GAS-SOLID SEPARATIONS

20.1. Gas-Solid Separations
20.2. Foam Separation and Froth Flotation
20.3. Sublimation and Freeze Drying
20.4. Separations by Thermal Diffusion
20.5. Electrochemical Synthesis
20.6. Fermentation Processing
References

CHAPTER 21 COSTS OF INDIVIDUAL EQUIPMENT

APPENDIX A UNITS, NOTATION, AND GENERAL DATA

APPENDIX B EQUIPMENT SPECIFICATION FORMS

APPENDIX C QUESTIONNAIRES OF EQUIPMENT SUPPLIERS

INDEX