Cereal Straw as a Resource for Sustainable Biomaterials and Biofuels book cover

Cereal Straw as a Resource for Sustainable Biomaterials and Biofuels

Chemistry, Extractives, Lignins, Hemicelluloses and Cellulose

The first book to examine straw chemistry in its entirety, Cereal Straws describes the recent development of techniques for fractionation of and conversion to environmental friendly materials. Balanced coverage of theory and applications includes: the analysis of straw structure and its components; extractives, from isolation to structural characterization; isolation, modification, and purification of hemicelluloses; the occurrence, structure, and chemical modification of cellulose; straw lignins, including their occurrence, structure and constitution, isolation and heterogeneity, and physico-chemical properties; and utilization of straw and straw components after chemical modification.

Audience
Scientists with research interests in the areas of natural resource management, environmental chemistry, plant chemistry, material science, polysaccharide chemistry, lignin chemistry, etc, as well as academic and industrial researchers with an interest in using agricultural residues as novel products for industry and/or recycling technologies

Hardbound, 300 Pages

Published: February 2010

Imprint: Elsevier

ISBN: 978-0-444-53234-3

Contents

  • Chapter 1 Introduction
    1 Introduction
    References

    Chapter 2 Structure, ultrastructure, and chemical composition
    2.1 Anatomical Structure
    2.2 Ultrastructure
    2.2.1 Ultrastructure of wood
    2.2.1.1 Fiber cell wall layers
    2.2.1.2 Microfibrils organization
    2.2.1.3 Matrix components
    2.2.2 Ultrastructure of grass
    2.3 Distribution of polysaccharides and lignin
    2.3.1 Polysaccharides distribution
    2.3.2 Lignin distribution
    2.3.2.1 Lignin distribution in wood
    2.3.2.2 Lignin distribution in grass
    2.4 Chemical composition
    2.4.1 Cellulose
    2.4.2 Hemicelluloses
    2.4.3 Lignin
    2.4.4 Pectic substances
    2.4.5 Proteins
    2.4.6 Cutins, suberins, waxes and other extracts
    2.4.7 Ash
    References

    Chapter 3 Extractive
    3.1 Isolation and purification
    3.1.1 Extractives isolation procedures
    3.1.2 Extractives purification
    3.2 Structural characterization
    3.2.1 The chemical composition of extractives
    3.2.2 Spectroscopic and thermal characterization
    References

    Chapter 4 Hemicelluloses
    4.1 Occurrence, nature, and classification
    4.1.1 Occurrence, nature, and classification of hemicelluloses
    4.1.2 Occurrence, nature, and classification of straw hemicelluloses
    4.2 Isolation, analysis, and structure
    4.2.1 Isolation
    4.2.1.1 Hemicelluloses isolated by chemical reagents
    4.2.1.2 Hemicelluloses isolated by the combination of chemical treatment with mechanical treatment
    4.2.1.3 Hemicelluloses isolated by heat treatments
    4.2.1.4 Hemicelluloses isolated by membrane
    4.2.1.5 Fractionation and purification
    4.2.2 Structural analysis of straw hemicelluloses
    4.2.2.1 Optical spectroscopy
    4.2.2.2 NMR Spectroscopy
    4.2.2.3. Chromatography and mass spectrometry
    4.2.3 Structure
    4.3 Physico-chemical properties
    4.3.1 Solubility
    4.3.2 Molecular weight and molecular weight distribution
    4.3.3 Rheological behavior
    4.3.4 Surface tension
    4.3.5 Thermal behavior
    4.3.6 Biological activity
    4.4 Interactions with cellulose
    4.4.1 Interaction of hemicelluloses with celluloses in production of celluloses
    4.4.2 Interaction of hemicelluloses with celluloses in papermaking process
    4.4.3 Interaction of hemicelluloses with celluloses in bio-ethanol process
    4.4.4 The assembly characteristics of hemicelluloses on cellulose
    4.5 Modification of hemicelluloses and its application
    4.5.1 The potential modification of hemicelluloses
    4.5.2 Chemical modification and its application
    4.5.2.1 Esterification of straw hemicelluloses
    4.5.2.2 Etherification of hemicelluloses
    4.5.2.3 Graft polymerization of hemicelluloses
    4.5.2.4 Oxidation of hemicelluloses
    4.5.3 Straw hemicelluloses and their application
    4.5.4 Summary
    References

    Chapter 5 Cellulose
    5.1 Occurrence
    5.2 Isolation
    5.2.1 Delignification and alkali extraction
    5.2.2 Steam explosion
    5.2.3 Alkaline peroxide extraction
    5.2.4 Organic solvent extraction
    5.2.5 Other isolation methods
    5.3 Structure and the crystalline lattice of cellulose I
    5.3.1 Supermolecular structure
    5.3.2 Cellulose lattice I.444
    5.3.3 Conversion of Cellulose I to cellulose II
    5.4 Physico-chemical properties
    5.4.1 Structural properties
    5.4.2 Dissolution of cellulose
    5.4.2.1 Inorganic molten salts
    5.4.2.2 N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO)
    5.4.2.3 NaOH/urea and LiOH/urea
    5.4.2.4 Ionic liquids and ionic liquids analogues
    5.4.2.5 Other cellulose solvents
    5.4.3 Regeneration of cellulose
    5.4.4 Hydrolysis of cellulose
    5.5 Chemical modification and its utilization
    5.5.1 Acetylation
    5.5.2 Acylation with other linear anhydrides or chlorides
    5.5.3 Esterification with cyclic anhydrides
    5.5.4 Carboxymethylation
    5.5.5 Other chemical modification
    References

    Chapter 6 Lignin
    6.1 Introduction
    6.2 Monolignols and Lignification in the grass cell walls
    6.2.1 Biosynthesis of Monolignols
    6.2.2 Lignin deposition and topochemistry
    6.2.3 Lignification --- polymerization of monolignols
    6.3 Isolation and purification of lignins
    6.3.1 Milled wood lignin
    6.3.2 Enzyme lignin
    6.3.3 Alkali lignins
    6.3.4 Hydrogen peroxide lignin
    6.3.5 Organosolv Lignin
    6.3.6 High-Boiling Solvent Lignin
    6.3.7 Purification of lignins
    6.4 Analytical methods for lignin characterization
    6.4.1 Thioacidolysis
    6.4.2 DFRC method
    6.4.3 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy
    6.5 Structural Characteristics of Straw lignins
    6.5.1 Ferulates in Grass Lignins
    6.5.2 p-Coumarates in Grass Lignins
    6.5.3 Lignin-Carbohydrate-Complex (LCC) in Grass Plants
    6.6 Utilization of Lignins
    6.6.1 Wood adhesives made from lignins
    6.6.2 Biochemical/Biofuel from lignins
    6.7 Concluding remarks
    References

    Chapter 7 Chemical modification of straw as novel materials for industries
    7.1 Chemical modification of cereal straws as natural sorbents in oil spill cleanup
    7.1.1 Hazard of oil spills
    7.1.2 Methods for controlling oil spills
    7.1.3 Classification of oil sorbents
    7.1.4 Principles of sorbency
    7.1.5 Influent Factors of sorbtive capacity
    7.1.6 Chemical modification of waste materials from agriculture as oil sorbents
    7.1.7 Types of catalysts in chemical modification
    7.1.8 Agro-based Sorbent Application
    References

    7.2 Modification of cereal straws as natural sorbents for removing metal ions from industrial waster water
    7.2.1 Introduction
    7.2.2 Mechanism of Metal Biosorption
    7.2.3 Adsorption Models
    7.2.4 Methods of Chemical Modification
    7.2.5 Chemically Modified Straw
    7.2.6 Summary
    References

    7.3 Modification of straw for activated carbon preparation and application for the removal of dyes from aqueous solutions
    7.3.1 Introduction
    7.3.2 Technologies available for dye removal
    7.3.2.1 Biological treatments
    7.3.2.2 Chemical methods
    7.3.2.3 Physical methods
    7.3.3 Dye removal using commercial activated carbons
    7.3.4 Dye removal using agricultural wastes or by-products
    7.3.5 Activated carbons production from agricultural by-products
    7.3.5.1 Physical activation
    7.3.5.2 Chemical activation
    7.3.5.3 Dye removal using activated carbons from agricultural by-products
    7.3.6 Summary
    References

    7.4 Liquefaction and gasification of cereal straws
    7.4.1 Hydrothermal Liquefaction
    7.4.2 Solvolytic liquefaction
    7.4.3 Thermal gasification
    7.4.4 Hydrothermal gasification
    References

    7.5 Biorefinery straw for bioethanol
    7.5.1 Lignocellulosic biomass recalcitrance
    7.5.2 Bio-refinery straw for bio-ethanol production
    7.5.3 Summary
    References

    INDEX

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