Casing and Liners for Drilling and Completion

By

  • Ted G. Byrom, Consulting Engineer

The Gulf Drilling Series is a joint project between Gulf Publishing Company and the International Association of Drilling Contractors. The first text in this Series presents casing design and mechanics in a concise, two-part format. The first part focuses on basic casing design and instructs engineers and engineering students how to design a safe casing string. The second part covers more advanced material and special problems in casing design in a user-friendly format. Learn how to select sizes and setting depths to achieve well objectives, determine casing loads for design purposes, design casing properties to meet burst, collapse and tensile strength requirements and conduct casing running operations safely and successfully.
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Book information

  • Published: November 2013
  • Imprint: GULF PUBLISHING COMPANY
  • ISBN: 978-0-12-799981-4


Table of Contents


Preface

1 Oil-Field Casing

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Setting the Standards

1.3 Manufacture of Oil-Field Casing

1.3.1 Seamless Casing

1.3.2 Welded Casing

1.3.3 Strength Treatment of Casing

1.4 Casing Dimensions

1.4.1 Outside Diameter

1.4.2 Inside Diameter and Wall Thickness

1.4.3 Joint Length

1.4.4 Weights of Casing

1.5 Casing Grades

1.5.1 API Grades

1.5.2 Non-API Grades

1.6 Connections

1.6.1 API 8-rd Connections

1.6.2 Other Threaded and Coupled Connections

1.6.3 Integral Connections

1.7 Strengths of Casing

1.8 Closure

1.9 References

2 Basic Calculations and Hydrostatics

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Units of Measure

2.2.1 Weight and Mass in Oil-Field Context

2.2.2 Standard Gravity

2.2.3 Fluid Density

2.2.4 Units in Formulas and Equations

2.2.5 Significant Figures, Rounding, and Computers

2.3 Fluid Statics

2.3.1 Hydrostatic Pressure

2.3.2 Buoyancy and Archimedes’ Principle

2.4 Oil-Field Calculations

2.4.1 Hydrostatic Pressures in Well Bores

2.4.2 Buoyed Weight of Casing

2.4.3 Buoyed Weight of Casing in Inclined and Curved Well Bores

2.4.4 The Ubiquitous Vacuum

2.5 Closure

2.6 References

3 Casing Depth and Size Determination

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Casing Depth Determination

3.2.1 Depth Parameters

3.2.2 Conductor Casing Depth

3.2.3 Surface Casing Depth

3.2.4 Intermediate Casing Depth

3.2.5 Setting Depths Using Pore and Fracture Pressures

3.2.6 Casing Size Selection

3.2.7 Well Bore Size Selection

3.2.8 Bit Choices

3.2.9 Alternative Approaches

3.3 Closure

3.4 References

4 Casing Load Determination

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Casing Loads

4.3 Collapse Loading

4.4 Burst Loading

4.5 Surface Casing

4.5.1 Surface Casing Collapse Loads

4.5.2 Surface Casing Burst Loads

4.5.3 Surface Casing Load Curves

4.6 Intermediate Casing

4.6.1 Intermediate Casing Collapse Loads

4.6.2 Intermediate Casing Burst Loads

4.7 Production Casing

4.7.1 Production Casing Collapse Loads

4.7.2 Production Casing Burst Loads

4.8 Liners and Tieback Strings

4.9 Closure

4.10 Reference

5 Design Loads and Casing Selection

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Design Factors

5.3 Design Curves for Collapse and Burst

5.4 Preliminary Casing Selection Process

5.4.1 Selection Considerations

5.5 Axial Loads

5.5.1 Axial Load Considerations

5.5.2 Types of Axial Loads

5.6 Collapse with Combined Loads

5.6.1 Combined Loads

5.6.2 Simplified Method

5.6.3 Better Simplified Method

5.6.4 Historical API Method

5.6.5 New Combined Loads Formula

5.7 Additional Consideration-Cost

5.8 Closure

5.9 References

6 Running Casing

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Transport and Handling

6.2.1 Transport to Location

6.2.2 On Location

6.3 Pipe Measurements

6.4 Crossover Joints and Subs

6.5 Running the Casing

6.5.1 Getting the Casing to the Rig Floor

6.5.2 Stabbing

6.5.3 Filling the Casing

6.5.4 Makeup Torque

6.5.5 Thread Locking

6.5.6 Casing Handling Tools

6.5.7 Running Casing in the Hole

6.5.8 Highly Deviated Wells

6.6 Landing Practices

6.6.1 Common Landing Practices

6.6.2 Maximum Hanging Weight

6.7 Closure

7 Beyond Basic Casing Design

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Structural Design

7.2.1 Deterministic and Probabilistic Design

7.2.2 Design Limits

7.2.3 Design Comments

7.3 Mechanics of Solids

7.3.1 Index Notation

7.3.2 Coordinate Systems

7.3.3 The Continuum

7.3.4 Sign Convention

7.4 Material Behavior

7.4.1 Elasticity

7.4.2 Plasticity

7.5 Yield Criteria

7.6 Mechanics of Tubes

7.7 Closure

7.8 References

8 Casing Design Performance

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Tensile Design Strength

8.3 Burst Design Strength

8.4 Collapse Design Strength

8.5 Combined Loads

8.5.1 A Yield-Based Approach

8.5.2 Current API-Based Approach to Combined Loading

8.5.3 Proposed API/ISO-Based Approach

8.6 Lateral Buckling

8.6.1 Stability

8.6.2 Lateral Buckling of Casing

8.7 Thermal Effects

8.7.1 Temperature and Material Properties

8.7.2 Temperature Changes

8.8 Closure

8.9 References

9 Casing in Directional and Horizontal Wells

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Bore-Hole Friction

9.2.1 The Amonton-Coulomb Friction Relationship

9.2.2 Calculating Bore-Hole Friction

9.3 Curvature and Bending

9.3.1 Simple Bending

9.3.2 Effect of Couplings on Bending Stress

9.3.3 Effects of Bending on Coupling Performance

9.4 Combined Loading in Curved Well Bores

9.5 Closure

9.6 References

10 Special Topics

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Casing Wear

10.3 Expandable Casing

10.3.1 Expandable Pipe

10.3.2 Expansion Process

10.3.3 Well Applications

10.3.4 Collapse Considerations

10.4 Drilling with Casing and Liners

10.4.1 Drilling Methods with Casing

10.4.2 Casing as a Drill String

10.4.3 Casing Wear and Fatigue

10.4.4 Cementing

10.4.5 Advantages and Questions

10.5 Closure

Index