Cardiometabolic disease is the leading cause of death in many parts of the world. There are many potentially modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors associated with the same. Although with the recent advances in management and preventive strategies the mortality rates have reduced, but no patient actually achieves an adequate control of the CVD risk factors with the declining quality of life. In addition, growing obesity and DM in younger age groups has further undermined the improvements achieved in CVD.
Diabetes and CVD share a "common soil" in their etiology and the causative factors for these diseases are termed as "cardiometabolic risk factors." Cardiometabolic risk (CMR) is the global risk of developing type 2 diabetes and CVD. CMR factors include overweight or obesity, high blood glucose, HTN, dyslipidemia, inflammation and hypercoagulation, physical inactivity, smoking, age, race and ethnicity,
gender, and family history. Among these, age, race/ethnicity, gender, and family history are non-modifiable risk factors. The remaining are modifiable risk factors and closely interrelated. Recently, systematic prospective studies have shown evidences that moderate lifestyle modifications help in reducing the metabolic risk factors. The major principles include cessation of smoking, enhanced physical activity, and reduction of excess weight. Healthy diet also has a major role in controlling overweight and maintaining ideal weight. Each of the risk factors poses a danger to good health; the propensity increases with multiple risk factors. It is also shown that the CMR factors tend to cluster as the metabolic syndrome.
This book is designed to address such questions with supportive typical clinical scenarios, with which all readers will be able to identify. Thus it provides an excellent opportunity to widen oneâs perspective in this area.