List of contributors. Preface. Acknowledgements. I. Perspectives. 1. Innate versus learned movements - a false dichotomy? (S. Grillner, P. Wallén). 2. Why and how are posture and movement coordinated? (J. Massion, A. Alexandrov, A. Frolov). 3. Motor coordination can be fully understood only be studying complex movements (P.J. Cordo, V.S. Gurfinkel). 4. The emotional brain: neural correlates of cat sexual behavior and human male ejaculation (G. Holstege, J.R. Georgiadis). II. Spinal cord and brainstem: development and comparative issues. 5. Developmental changes in rhythmic spinal neuronal activity in the rat fetus (N. Kudo, H. Nishimaru, K. Nakayama). 6. The maturation of locomotor networks (F. Clarac, F. Brocard, L. Vinay). 7. Reflections on respiratory rhythm generation(K. Ezure). III. Spinal cord and brainstem: motoneurons, pattern generation and sensory feedback. 8. Key mechanisms for setting the input-output gain across the motoneuron pool(H. Hultborn, R.B. Brownstone et al.). 9. Rhythm generation for food-ingestive movements (Y. Nakamura, N. Katakura et al.). 10. Do respiratory neurons control female receptive behavior: a suggested role for a medullary central pattern generator? (P.A. Kirkwood, T.W. Ford). 11. The central pattern generator for forelimb locomotion in the cat (T. Yamaguchi). 12. Generating the walking gait: role of sensory feedback (K.G. Pearson). IV. Spinal cord and brainstem: adaptive mechanisms. 13. Cellular transplants: steps toward restoration of function in spinal injured animals (M. Murray). 14. Neurotrophic effects on dorsal root regeneration into the spinal cord (A. Tessler). 15. Effects of an embryonic repair graft on recovery from spinal cord injury (S. Kawaguchi, T. Iseda, T. Nishio). 16. Determinants of locomotor recovery after spinal injury in the cat (S. Rossignol, L. Bouyer et al.). V. Biomechanical and imaging approaches in movement neuroscience. 17. Trunk movements and EMG activity in the cat: level vs. upslope walking (N. Wada, K. Kanda). 18. Biomechanical constraints in hindlimb joints during the quadrupedal vs. bipedal locomotion of M. Fuscata (K. Nakajima, F. Mori et al.). 19. Reactive and anticipatory control of posture and bipedal locomotion in a non-human primate(F. Mori, K. Nakajima et al.). 20. Neural control mechanisms for normal vs. Parkinsonian gait (H. Shibasaki, H. Fukuyama, T. Hanakawa). 21. Multijoint movement control: the importance of interactive torques (C.J. Ketcham, N.V. Dounskaia, G.E. Stelmach). VI. Descending command issues. 22. How the mesencephalic locomotor region recruits hindbrain neurons (I. Kagan, M.L. Shik). 23. Role of basal ganglia-brainstem systems in the control of postural muscle tone and locomotion(K. Takakusaki, J. Oohinata-Sugimoto et al.). 24. Locomotor role of the corticoreticular-reticulospinal-spinal interneuronal system (K. Matsuyama, F. Mori et al.). 25. Cortical and brainstem control of locomotion (T. Drew, S. Prentice, B. Schepens). 26. Direct and indirect pathways for corticospinal control of upper limb motoneurons in the primate(R.N. Lemon, P.A. Kirkwood et al.). VII. Supraspinal sensorimotor interactions. 27. Arousal mechanisms related to posture and locomotion: 1. Descending modulation (E. Garcia-Rill, Y. Homma, R.D. Skinner). 28. Arousal mechanisms related to posture and locomotion: 2. Ascending modulation (R.D. Skinner, Y. Homma, E. Garcia-Rill). 29. Switching between cortical and subcortical sensorimotor pathways (T. Isa, Y. Kobayashi). VIII. Cerebellar interactions and control mechanisms. 30. Cerebellar activation of cortical motor regions: comparisons across mammals (T. Yamamoto, Y. Nishimura et al.). 31. Task-dependent role of the cerebellum in motor learning (J.R. Bloedel). 32. Role of the cerebellum in eyeblink conditioning(V. Bracha). 33. Integration of multiple motor segments for the elaboration of locomotion: role of the fastigial nucleus of the cerebellum (S. Mori, K. Nakajima et al.). 34. Role of the cerebellum in the control and adaptation of gait in health and disease (W.T. Thach, A.J. Bastian). IX. Eye-head-neck coordination. 35. Current approaches and future directions to understanding control of head movement (B.W. Peterson). 36. The neural control of orienting: role of multiple-branching reticulospinal neurons (S. Sasaki, K. Yoshimura, K. Naito). 37. Role of the frontal eye fields in smooth gaze tracking(K. Fukushima, T. Yamanobe et al.). 38. The role of cross-striolar and commissural inhibition in the vestibulocollic reflex(Y. Uchino). 39. Functional synergies among neck muscles revealed by branching patterns of single, long descending motor-tract axons (Y. Sugiuchi, S. Kakei et al.). 40. Control of orienting movements: role of multiple tectal projections of the lower brainstem (A. Grantyn, A.K. Moschovakis, T. Kitama). 41. Pedunculo-pontine control of visually guided saccades (Y. Kobayashi, Y. Inoue, T. Isa). X. Higher control mechanisms: basal ganglia, sensorimotor cortex and frontal lobe. 42. Macro-architecture of basal ganglia loops with the cerebral cortex: use of rabies virus to reveal multisynaptic circuits(R.M. Kelly, P.L. Strick). 43. A new dynamic model of the cortico-basal ganglia loop (A. Nambu). 44. Functional recovery after lesions of the primary motor cortex (E.M. Rouiller, E. Olivier). 45. Adaptive behavior of cortical neurons during a perturbed arm-reaching movement in a non-human primate (D.J. Weber, J. He). 46. The quest to understand bimanual coordination (M. Wiesendanger, D.J. Serrien). 47. Functional specialization in dorsal and ventral premotor areas (E. Hoshi, J. Tanji). 48. Spatially directed movement and neuronal activity in freely moving monkey(Y.-Y. Ma, J.-W. Ryou et al.). Subject Index.