Brain Machine Interfaces for Space Applications: enhancing astronaut capabilities book cover

Brain Machine Interfaces for Space Applications: enhancing astronaut capabilities

Among the most interesting fields in research are the emerging possibilities to interface the human brain directly with machines, e.g. with computers and robotic interfaces. The European Space Agency's Advanced Concept team as a multidisciplinary team from engineering, artificial intelligence, and neural engineering has been working on the cutting edge of exploring brain machine interfaces for application in space as solutions to limitations astronauts face in space, and this book for the first time presents the state-of-the-art-cohesively.

Audience
Space Science; Neuroscience; Bioinformatics; Bioengineers; Robotics

Hardbound, 296 Pages

Published: July 2009

Imprint: Academic Press

ISBN: 978-0-12-374821-8

Contents

  • CONTENTS

    Contributors......................................................................... xi
    Foreword ............................................................................... xv
    Preface ................................................................................... xvii

    SECTION ONE

    HYBRID BIONIC SYSTEMS

    EMGBased and GazeTrackingBased Man-Machine Interfaces

    Federico Carpi and Danilo De Rossi

    I. Introduction ........................................................................ 4

    II. EMGBasedInterfaces............................................................. 5

    III. GazeTrackingBasedInterfaces.................................................. 12

    IV. FinalRemark ....................................................................... 19
    References .......................................................................... 19

    Bidirectional Interfaces with the Peripheral Nervous System

    Silvestro Micera and Xavier Navarro

    I. Introduction ........................................................................ 24

    II. OrganizationandFunctionofthePNS ........................................ 25

    III. Nerve Electrodes:TypesandApplications..................................... 28

    IV. Stimulationand RecordingNeuralSignals .................................... 31

    V. BiomedicalApplications.......................................................... 33
    References .......................................................................... 35

    Interfacing Insect Brain for Space Applications

    Giovanni Di Pino, Tobias Seidl, Antonella Benvenuto,
    Fabrizio Sergi, Domenico Campolo, Dino Accoto,
    Paolo Maria Rossini, and Eugenio Guglielmelli

    I. Introduction ........................................................................ 40

    II. Interfaces............................................................................ 41

    III. SensoryandMotorMapping..................................................... 44

    IV. ProposingaModelofHybrid Control Architecture ......................... 45

    v

    vi CONTENTS

    V. ConclusionsandOutlook......................................................... 46
    References........................................................................... 47

    SECTION TWO

    MEET THE BRAIN

    Meet the Brain: Neurophysiology

    John Rothwell

    I. Introduction......................................................................... 52

    II. HowDoNeuronsTransmit Information?...................................... 53

    III. Synapses ............................................................................. 55

    IV. TheMotorAreasofthe CerebralCortex....................................... 57

    V. PlasticityofPrimaryMotorCortex .............................................. 63

    VI. Conclusions ......................................................................... 64
    References........................................................................... 65

    Fundamentals of Electroencefalography, Magnetoencefalography, and Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Claudio Babiloni, Vittorio Pizzella, Cosimo del Gratta,
    Antonio Ferretti, and Gian Luca Romani

    I. Introduction to Electroencephalography andMagnetoencephalography ................................................... 68

    II. Physiological GenerationofEEG/MEGSignals............................... 69

    III. EEG and MEG Techniques Allow the Study of Brain Rhythms............. 73

    IV. FunctionalMagneticResonanceImaging ...................................... 74

    V. Physiological Generation of Blood Oxygen LevelDependent Signal ...... 75

    VI. TypicalfMRIExperimentalDesigns............................................. 77

    VII. BOLDfMRITechniquesin Clinical Environment ............................ 77
    References........................................................................... 78

    Implications of Brain Plasticity to Brain-Machine Interfaces Operation:
    A Potential Paradox?

    Paolo Maria Rossini

    I. Introduction......................................................................... 82

    II. BrainPlasticity ...................................................................... 83

    III. BrainPlasticityandBMISystems ................................................ 87

    IV. MonitoringPlasticityDuringBMIControl ..................................... 88

    V. Conclusions ......................................................................... 89
    References........................................................................... 89

    CONTENTS

    SECTION THREE

    BRAIN MACHINE INTERFACES, A NEW
    BRAINTOENVIRONMENT COMMUNICATION CHANNEL

    An Overview of BMIs

    Francisco Sepulveda

    I. Introduction ........................................................................ 94

    II. MainElementsinaBMI.......................................................... 96

    III. BMITypes........................................................................... 99

    IV. BMIsandtheUser’sAbility...................................................... 102

    V. Conclusion.......................................................................... 104
    References .......................................................................... 104

    Neurofeedback and Brain-Computer Interface: Clinical Applications

    Niels Birbaumer, Ander Ramos Murguialday, Cornelia Weber, and Pedro Montoya

    I. Introduction ........................................................................ 108

    II. FunctionalMagnetic ResonanceImaging: fMRIBMI ........................ 109

    III. BMIinLockedinSyndrome..................................................... 110

    IV. BMIinStrokeandSpinalCordInjury ......................................... 112

    V. Conclusion.......................................................................... 114
    References .......................................................................... 115

    Flexibility and Practicality: Graz Brain-Computer Interface Approach

    Reinhold Scherer, Gernot R. MullerPutz, and Gert Pfurtscheller

    I. Introduction ........................................................................ 120

    II. GrazBCI ............................................................................ 120

    III. Applications......................................................................... 122

    IV. Discussion ........................................................................... 127
    References .......................................................................... 129

    On the Use of Brain-Computer Interfaces Outside Scientific Laboratories: Toward an Application in Domotic Environments

    F. Babiloni, F. Cincotti, M. Marciani, S. Salinari, L. Astolfi,

    F. Aloise, F. De Vico Fallani, and D. Mattia

    I. Introduction ........................................................................ 134

    II. Methodology........................................................................ 135

    viii CONTENTS

    III. Results................................................................................ 142

    IV. Discussion ........................................................................... 144
    References........................................................................... 146

    Brain-Computer Interface Research at the Wadsworth Center:
    Developments in Noninvasive Communication and Control

    Dean J. Krusienski and Jonathan R. Wolpaw

    I. Introduction......................................................................... 147

    II. SensorimotorRhythmBasedBCIControl...................................... 149

    III. P300BasedBCIControl........................................................... 152

    1. IV. CurrentandFutureDirections................................................... 154
    2. V. Conclusion .......................................................................... 155
      References........................................................................... 155

    WatchingBrain TV and Playing Brain Ball: ExploringNovel BCI Strategies Using RealTime Analysis of Human Intracranial Data

    Karim Jerbi, Samson Freyermuth, Lorella Minotti, Philippe Kahane, Alain Berthoz, and JeanPhilippe Lachaux

    I. Introduction......................................................................... 160

    II. MaterialsandMethods............................................................ 161

    III. Results................................................................................ 161

    IV. Discussion ........................................................................... 166
    References........................................................................... 167

    SECTION FOUR

    BRAINMACHINE INTERFACES AND SPACE

    Adaptive Changes of Rhythmic EEG Oscillations in Space:
    Implications for Brain-Machine Interface Applications

    G. Cheron, A. M. Cebolla, M. Petieau, A. Bengoetxea,

    E. PalmeroSoler, A. Leroy, and B. Dan

    I. Introduction......................................................................... 172

    II. SpontaneousEEG Fluctuations:Whereisthe Baseline? ..................... 172

    III. Howto Manage AlphaandMu Oscillationsin Space........................ 173

    1. IV. From the Identification Process to the Exploitation ofBrainOscillationsinSpace.................................................... 174
    2. V. The Influence of TopDown Dynamics on BCI Approach ............... 176

    VI. Gamma EEG Oscillations: AWindow into Cognition, Perception, Attention, Binding,or MicrosaccadicEye Movements ....................... 179

    VII. The Gating of the SomatosensoryEvokedPotentials asaNewToolsforBCI............................................................ 179 References........................................................................... 183

    CONTENTS

    Validation of Brain-Machine Interfaces During Parabolic Flight

    Jose del R. Millan, Pierre W. Ferrez, and Tobias Seidl

    I. Introduction ........................................................................ 189

    II. Methods............................................................................. 190

    III. ExperimentalResults.............................................................. 193

    IV. Discussion ........................................................................... 196
    References .......................................................................... 197

    Matching Brain-Machine Interface Performance to Space Applications

    Luca Citi, Oliver Tonet, and Martina Marinelli

    I. Introduction ........................................................................ 200

    II. Methods: PerformanceMeasuresofHBSs ..................................... 201

    III. Materials............................................................................. 202

    IV. Results:Matching InterfacesandDevices...................................... 205

    V. PossibleDemonstrators ........................................................... 208

    VI. Conclusions......................................................................... 209
    References .......................................................................... 210

    Brain-Machine Interfaces forSpace Applications-Research,Technological
    Development, and Opportunities

    Leopold Summerer, Dario Izzo, and Luca Rossini

    I. Introduction ........................................................................ 214

    II. AnOutlookonBMIResearchTrends.......................................... 215

    III. Future Manned Space Programs-Planned or Envisioned.................. 217

    IV. NextStepsTowardBMIsforSpaceApplications............................. 220

    V. Conclusion.......................................................................... 221
    References .......................................................................... 221

    Index ...................................................................................... 225
    Contents of Recent Volumes................................................ 231

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