BRAIN-INSPIRED IT III is the third volume of the Brain-Inspired IT series intended for researchers and students who are involved or interested in the brain sciences, technology, and engineering. It includes 4 invited papers, 7 COE papers, 57 selected papers from the Third International Symposium BrainIT 2006, which was held in Kitakyushu, Japan, on September 27-29, 2006. The last two International symposiums BrainIT 2004 and 2005 were great success, and provided the participants with good opportunities to exchange valuable information and various ideas from multidisciplinary research area. We made a survey of the current state-of-the-art and explored the possibility to establish new research fields in the Brain-Inspired Information Technology. The first 4 invited papers are contributed by outstanding researchers in the area, Dr. M. Kawato (ATR Computational Neuroscience Laboratories), Prof. Ryohei Kanzaki (The University of Tokyo), Prof. Asla PitkÃ¤nen (University of Kuopio), Prof. Helge Ritter (Bielefeld University), who were presented in the special and invited sessions of BrainIT2006 to discuss how the brain processes the information and how we apply the processing to technology. Technical papers cover vision system, other sensory systems, cognition and languages, learning and memory, behavior and emotion, motor controls, dynamics, neural computation, neural networks, and brain-inspired intelligent machines.