Biotechnology and the Environment

Research Needs


  • Gilbert S. Omenn
  • Albert H. Teich

Proceedings from an EPA workshop on research needs involving biotechnology.
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Environmental engineers and scientists.


Book information

  • Published: December 1986
  • ISBN: 978-0-8155-1105-2

Table of Contents

Part I Workshop SummaryWorshop Summary Gilbert S. Omenn and Albert H. Teich Introduction and Background Key Concerns and Recommendations Environmental Effects Health Effects Monitoring and Quality Assurance Control TechnologiesPart II PapersResearch Plan for Test Methods Development For Risk Assessment of Novel Microbes Released Into Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems Al Bourquin and Ramon Seidler I. Introduction A. GoalB. Risk AssessmentC. Two Major Approaches1. Data Base Development2. ResearchD. Short and Long Term NeedsE. Relevance to EPA NeedsII. Novel OrganismsIII. Development of Test Methods for the Detection, Identification, and Enumeration of Novel OrganismsA. Statement of Research ProblemsB. Availability of Data BaseC. Approaches1. Conventional Techniques2. Molecular TechniquesD. Short Term ProductsE. Long Term ProductsIV. Developments of Test Methods for Assessing Fate of Novel OrganismsA. Statement of Research ProblemsB. Availability of Data BaseC. Approaches1. The Microcosm Approach2. Rationale for Selecting Ecosystemsa. Terrestrial Researchb. Aquatic ResearchD. Short Term ProductsE. Long Term ProductsV. Development of Test Methods for Assessing Genetic Stability of Novel OrganismsA. Statement of Research ProblemsB. Availability of Data BaseC. Approaches1. Naked Plasmid DNA in Novel Organisms2. Stability of Plasmid DNA in Novel Organisms3. ApproachesD. Short Term ProductsE. Long Term ProductsVI. Development of Test Methods for Assessing Hazards of Released Novel OrganismsA. Statement of Research ProblemsB. Availability of Data BaseC. ApproachesD. Short Term ProductsE. Long Term ProductsVII. SummaryVIII. AcknowledgementsIX. Literature CitedBiotechnology Health Assessment Research Plan Marvin Rogul and John R. Fowle IIII. IntroductionII. Health Effects Work Group Panel RecommendationsA. Data Gathering and Information ManagementB. Selection of Organisms for Validating Subpart M Test ApproachC. Protocol Development for Infectivity, Pathogenicity, and Metabolic Characteristics of Recombinant MicroorganismsD. Bacterial Pathogenicity CategoriesE. Establishment and Management of a Data Base of Characteristics of the Potential Hazards of Genetically Modified MaterialsF. Selection and Assessment of Safe HostsG. Development of Molecular ProbesIII. DiscussionA. Risk AssessmentB. Foundation Laid by the NIH Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee1. E. coli Studies Which Influenced the Development of the RAC Guidelines2. Experiments Simulating High Risk Conditions, Promoting and Detecting Genetic InterchangeIV. ReferencesEnvironmental Engineering Research Support Proposal John Burckle and Albert D. VenosaI. LegislationII. Regulatory NeedsIII. Overall Program ApproachIV. Summary of Proposed Environmental Engineering Efforts Related to Regulatory NeedsA. Regulatory NeedsB. Program StructureC. Proposed ApproachD. Development of Engineering Information and Methodology for Risk Assessment, Reduction and Management for Genetically Engineered Microorganisms in Biologically Based Manufacturing Processes and Deliberate Environmental Release1. Accidental and Deliberate Release from Biologically Based Manufacturing Processes2. Deliberate Release Into the EnvironmentMonitoring Techniques For Genetically Engineered Microorganisms David Glaser, Tim Keith, Peg Riley, Geoff Chambers, John Manning, Susan Hattingh and Ralph EvansI. IntroductionII. Sampling ConsiderationsA. IntroductionB. Qualitative SamplingC. Desorption from SedimentsD. EnrichmentE. Partitioning in the EnvironmentF. Issues in Sampling MethodsIII. Monitoring TechniquesA. Conventional Microbiological TechniquesB. Immunological Techniques1. Standard Methods of Antibody Production2. Monoclonal Methods of Antibody ProductionC. The Use of Genetic MarkersD. Molecular Techniques1. Restriction Enzyme Mapping2. DNA Probes3. DNA-DNA Hybridization4. Genomic SequencingIV. Microcosm Test for Monitoring TechniquesA. Microcosm ConstructionB. Microcosm MethodologyC. Sample ProtocolD. ContainmentE. Points to ConsiderV. Quality AssuranceA. IntroductionB. Testing for Sensitivity and SpecificityC. Testing for Linkage Between Markers and rDNAD. SummaryVI. ConclusionA. Monitoring TechniquesB. Scenarios for Protocol DevelopmentC. Research NeedsVII. Literature CitedAppendix: List of Participants