Baynes and Dominiczak

Baynes and Dominiczak's Medical Biochemistry Flash Cards

with STUDENT CONSULT Online Access

Get more out of your biochemistry review with Baynes and Dominiczak’s Medical Biochemistry Flash Cards! 224 clinically focused, full-color cards not only prepare you for exams, but also help you apply what you’ve learned to your future medical practice. Quick and easy to use, these portable and versatile flash cards are extremely effective for learning and retaining challenging biochemistry content.

Audience

First- and Second-Year Medical Students

., 285 Pages

Published: September 2012

Imprint: Saunders

ISBN: 978-0-323-08193-1

Contents

  • Metabolism

    1 Overview

    AA and proteins

    2 Types of amino acids neutral, basic acidic

    3 HH and ionization pK; HH and buffers

    4 Protein structure- primary to quarternary

    5 Techniques of protein separation

    Carbohydrates and lipids

    6 Classification of carbohydrates

    7 Fatty acids

    8 Lipids

    Plasma

    9 Blood- components. Complete blood count.

    10 Plasma proteins

    11 Immunoglobulins

    12 The transport function of plasma

    Oxygen

    13 Heme, myoglobin and haemoglobin Oxygen- pressures

    14 Allosterism, Bohr effect 2,3-DPG

    Enzymes

    15 Energy and Classification

    16 Enzymes and disease

    17 Enzyme kinetics. Enzyme inhibiton

    18 Enzyme regulation

    Hemostasis

    19 Overview. Causes of excessive bleeding Platelets

    20 Coagulation

    21 Fibrinolysis

    Membranes

    22 Structure

    23 Modes of transport

    24 Primary active transporters Glucose transporters

    25 Calcium transport and muscle contraction

    26 Acid secretion in the stomach

    Bioenergetics

    27 The process of oxidation of fuels Reduced coenzymes and ATP

    28 Oxidative phosphorylation

    29 ATP synthase

    30 Electron shuttles

    31 Inhibitors and uncouplers

    GI tract

    32 GI tract and digestion

    33 Digestion of carbohydrates

    34 Digestion of lipids

    35 Digestion of proteins

    Micronutrients

    36 Fat soluble vitamins

    37 Water soluble vitamins

    38 Vit B12

    39 Trace elements

    Glycolysis

    40 Glycolysis- investment stage

    41 Glycolysis- yield stage

    42 Glycolysis and other pathways

    43 Pentose phosphate pathway- the redox stage. Pentose phosphate pathway-- interconversion stage

    Glycogen

    44 Nutrients and pathways

    45 Glycogen structure & synthesis

    46 Glycogen degradation glycogenolysis

    47 The action of glucagon

    48 Glycogen storage diseases

    49 Gluconeogenesis

    50 Regulation of gluconeogenesis

    TCA cycle

    51 Acetyl-CoA

    52 Amphibolic nature of the cycle

    53 Pyruvate

    54 Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH)

    55 TCA and its enzymes

    56 Regulation of PDH

    57 Energetics

    58 TCA cycle regulation and anaplerotic reactions

    Lipid oxidation

    59 Fatty acid activation and transport

    60 Beta-oxidation

    61 Ketogenesis

    62 Regulation of lipid metabolism by glucagon and epinephrine

    Biosynthesis of fatty acids

    63 The Ac-CoA carboxylase

    64 Fatty acid synthetase -structure

    65 Fatty acid synthetase reaction

    66 Malate shuttle - transport of 2C units from the mitochondria

    67 Elongation and desaturation

    68 Triglycerides and essential fatty acids

    Cholesterol

    69 Cholesterol synthesis and related pathways

    70 Biosynthesis of mevalonic acid

    71 Biosynthesis of farnesyl-P, squalene

    72 Biosynthesis of cholesterol

    73 Regulation of cellular cholesterol concentration

    74 Bile acids: structure and metabolism

    75 Biosynthesis of steroid hormones

    76 Classes of steroids

    Lipoproteins

    77 Lipoprotein particle and its components

    78 Apoproteins and their receptors

    79 Fuel transport and overflow pathway

    80 Reverse cholesterol transport

    81 Dyslipidemias

    82 Atherogenesis

    Biosynthesis and degradation of amino acids

    83 Amino acids and related substances

    84 Urea cycle- sources of urea atoms

    85 Transamination and oxidative deamination

    86 Amino acids and central metabolic pathways

    87 Branched chain amino acids

    88 Aromatic amino acids

    89 Essential and nonessential AA

    Muscle

    90 Muscle proteins and sarcomere

    91 Muscle contraction

    92 Biochemistry of muscular exercise. Creatine phosphate

    93 Troponin and myocardial infarction

    Glucose and fuel metabolism

    94 Anabolism and catabolism

    95 Glucose homeostasis

    96 Insulin action

    97 Glucagon-insulin antagonism

    98 The role of enzyme phosphorylation

    99 Hypoglycemia

    100 Fed state

    101 Fasting state

    102 Starvation

    103 Metabolism during stress and injury

    104 Definition and classification of diabetes

    105 Metabolism in diabetes

    106 Diabetic ketoacidosis and long term complications

    107 Diabetes: diagnostic criteria and laboratory diagnosis

    Nutrition and energy balance

    108 Regulation of food intake

    109 Caloric content and nutritional requlation Classes of nutrients

    110 Iron metabolism

    111 Malnutrition

    112 Obesity

    Water and electrolytes

    113 Body compartments Electrolyte content of fluids

    114 Water balance Osmolality

    115 Assessment of renal function

    116 Potassium

    117 Renin-angiotensin system Links between water and sodium metabolism

    118 Vasopressin and aquaporins

    Acid base

    119 Acid base balance

    120 Acid-base disorders

    121 The gas exchange Transport of carbon dioxide

    122 Excretion of bicarbonate

    Calcium and bone

    123 Bone resorption and bone formation Disorders of calcium metabolism

    124 Calcium homeostasis

    125 Vitamin D

    Complex glycoproteins

    126 Glycoproteins

    127 Glucose mannose and galactose

    128 Metabolism of fructose

    129 Sialic acid. Role of complex carbohydrates

    Complex lipids

    130 Phospholipids

    131 Sphingolipids

    132 Cerebrosides and gangliosides

    Extracellular matrix

    133 Collagens Other proteins of the extracellular matrix

    Liver

    134 Functions of the liver

    135 Heme synthesis

    136 Bilirubun metabolism

    137 Drug metabolism Alcohol

    138 Jaundice

    Nucleotides

    139 Purine synthesis

    140 Conversion of nucleotides

    141 Purine salvage pathways

    142 Degradation of purines

    143 Pyrimidine synth

    144 Synthesis of nucleotides

    DNA

    145 Structure Types of DNA

    146 Replication

    147 Mutations and repair

    RNA

    148 Classes of RNA

    149 Transcription

    150 RNA processing

    Protein synthesis

    151 Genetic code

    152 Activation of amino acids and interaction with tRNA

    153 Initiation

    154 Peptide bond formation

    155 Termination

    156 Ribosomes and endoplasmic reticulum

    157 Proteasome and ubiquitin

    Gene expression

    158 Control of gene expression

    159 Components of the control system

    160 Steroid receptors

    161 Other regulatory mechanisms

    Recombinant DNA technology

    162 Molecular hybridization

    163 Microarrays

    164 Restriction enzymes

    165 Southern blotting

    166 DNA cloning- PCR

    167 Analysis of DNA

    168 DNA sequencing

    Genomics and proteomics

    169 Genomics-techniques

    170 Proteomics

    171 Metabolomics and biomarkers

    Oxygen and life

    172 Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress

    173 Formation of ROS Lipid peroxidation

    174 Antioxidants

    Immune response

    175 Innate immune response

    176 Adaptive immune response

    177 Elimination of antigens

    178 Humoral response

    179 Autoimmunity hypersensitivity immunodeficiency

    Endocrinology

    180 Hormones and Hormone-binding proteins

    181 Hormone measurements and function tests

    182 Endocrine axes and disorders

    183 Thyroid hormones

    184 Endocrinology of the adrenal cortex - cortisol

    185 Endocrinology of the adrenal cortex - androgens and estrogens

    186 Gonadal hormones and the menstrual cycle

    187 The growth hormone and prolactin

    Receptors and Signal Transduction

    188 Hormone receptors

    189 G-protein signaling

    190 C-AMP

    191 Protein kinase A system

    192 Phosphoinositol and DAG and PKC

    193 Arachidonic acid, phospholipases and eicosanoids

    Neurochemistry

    194 Neurones

    195 Mechanism of vision

    Neurotransmitters

    196 Nature of neurotransmitters

    197 Ionotropic and metabotropic receptors

    198 Synthesis of neurotransmitters

    199 Catabolism of catecholamines

    200 Nitric oxide

    Growth, differentiation and cancer

    201 Cell cycle

    202 Growth factors and their receptors

    203 Apoptosis

    204 Cancer, oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes

    Aging

    205 Theories of aging

    206 Biochemistry of aging

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