Battery Operated Devices and Systems

From Portable Electronics to Industrial Products


  • Gianfranco Pistoia, formerly Research Director, National Research Council, Rome, Italy

For researchers interested in devices and systems drawing power from batteries, this book will be a valuable information source. It reports on many applications in detail and presents the essentials of batteries. Links to further reading are provided through the 275 references. In chapter 1, all applications in the portable and industrial areas are introduced. Some market considerations follow with details on specific sectors. In chapter 2, basic characteristics of all primary and secondary batteries used in these applications are reviewed. The most recent trends, especially for the ubiquitous lithium ion batteries, are covered. In chapter 3, portable applications, e.g. mobile phones, notebook computers, cameras, camcorders, personal digital assistants, medical instruments, power tools, portable GPS, etc., are described with details on their electronic aspects. There is particular emphasis on the devices’ power consumption and management for the implications on battery life and the devices’ runtime. Battery management is also dealt with in detail, particularly as far as the charging methods are concerned. The criteria of battery choice are stressed. The comprehensive chapter on industrial applications includes aerospace, telecommunications, emergency systems, load levelling, energy storage, toll collection, different meters, data loggers, oil drilling, oceanography, meteorology, etc. The final part of this section is devoted to wireless connectivity, i.e. Wi-Fi, Bluetooth and Zigbee, which is exploited in many portable and industrial applications.
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Graduates working in research institutions, universities and industries dealing with power sources and energy conversion, civil, electrical and transport engineers as well as chemists.


Book information

  • Published: October 2008
  • Imprint: ELSEVIER
  • ISBN: 978-0-444-53214-5


"The book is enriched with numerous figures and…They are always very instructive…The book is a must for every library associated with research and development groups working on electrochemical energy conversion and storage."--J Solid State Electrochem (2012) Volume 16 P. 415
"[This book] by an expert known for his numerous contributions in the fields of intrinsically conducting polymersand materials for secondary lithium batteries provides exactly this help. [T]he first pages are… enlightening: The reviewer cannot remember having seen before such well-organized lists of possible/already established applications in alphabetic and in topological order. Quite obviously the author is drawing from a rich source of own scientific work…. The book is a must for every library associated with research and development groups working on electrochemical energy conversion and storage."-Rudolf Holze in the Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry

Table of Contents

ContentsChapter 1 Areas of Battery Applications 1.1. Introduction1.2. Application Sectors and Market Considerations1.2.1. Computing1.2.2. Communications1.2.3. Portable Tools1.2.4. Medical Applications1.2.5. Other Portable Products1.2.6. UPS and Backup Batteries1.2.7. Aerospace and Military Applications1.2.8. Electric Vehicles and Hybrid Electric Vehicles1.2.9. Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) Vehicles1.3. Application’s and Battery’s LifeReferences Chapter 2 Battery Categories and Types2.1. Introduction2.2. Batteries for Portable Applications2.2.1. Zinc-Carbon Batteries2.2.2. Alkaline Batteries2.2.3. Primary Zinc/Silver Oxide Batteries2.2.4. Primary Zinc-Air Batteries2.2.5. Strong vs. Weak Points and Main Applications of Aqueous Primary Battery2.3. Batteries Used in Both Portable and Industrial/Vehicular Applications2.3.1. Primary Lithium Batteries2.3.1.1. Lithium/Sulphur Dioxide Batteries2.3.1.2. Lithium/Thionyl Chloride Batteries2.3.1.3. Lithium/Manganese Dioxide Batteries2.3.1.4. Lithium/Carbon Monofluoride Batteries2.3.1.5. Comparison of Li Primary Batteries and Market Considerations2.3.2. Rechargeable Lithium Batteries (Li Negative Electrode)2.3.3. Lithium-Ion Batteries2.3.4. Rechargeable Aqueous Batteries2.3.4.1. Lead-Acid Batteries2.3.4.2. Nickel-Cadmium Batteries2.3.4.3. Nickel-Metal Hydride Batteries2.3.4.4. Secondary Zinc/Silver Oxide Batteries2.3.4.5. Comparison of the Main Secondary Batteries2.4. Batteries Only Used in Industrial/Vehicular Applications2.4.1. Secondary Aqueous Batteries Nickel-Hydrogen Batteries2.4.1.2. Nickel-Iron Batteries2.4.1.3. Nickel-Zinc Batteries2.4.1.4. Large Zinc-Air Batteries2.4.1.5. Zinc/Bromine Batteries2.4.1.6. Vanadium Redox-Flow Batteries (VRB)2.4.2. Thermal Batteries 1. Li-Al/Iron Sulphide Batteries 2. Sodium/Sulphur Batteries 3. Sodium/Nickel Chloride (Zebra) Batteries 4. Lithium-Metal-Polymer BatteriesReferencesChapter 3Portable Applications3.1. General Considerations3.2. Characteristics of Some Applications A. Video/Audio Applications3.2.1. Notebooks, Tablet PC and Ultra Mobile PC (UMPC)3.2.2. E-Book Readers3.2.3. Cellular Phones and Smartphones3.2.4. Personal Digital Assistants (PDA)3.2.5. Mobile TV3.2.6. Digital Still Cameras (DSC)3.2.7. Digital Camcorders3.2.8. Portable Players3.2.9. Portable VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) Phones3.2.10. Professional Audio/Video Equipment B. Medical Applications B1. Meters3.2.11. Glucose Meter3.2.12. Pulse Oximetry3.2.13. Miscellaneous B2. Therapeutic Devices3.2.14. CPR (Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation) and AED (Automated External Defibrillator)3.2.15. Pacemakers and Other Portable Devices for Cardiac Rhythm Management3.2.16. Other Therapeutic Devices B3. Diagnostic DevicesB4. Miscellaneous Medical Devices C. Miscellaneous Applications3.2.17. Hobby and Professional Power Tools3.2.18. Portable Barcode Readers3.2.19. Portable Payment Terminals3.2.20. Handheld GPS (Global Positioning Systems) 3.2.21. Fishing Aids3.3. Portable Device Power Management A. Power Management of the Device Components3.3.1. Transistors3.3.2. Microprocessors and Microcontrollers3.3.3. Voltage Regulators3.3.4. Radio Frequency Communications3.3.5. Display3.3.6. Port Power and Protection3.3.7. Accessory Lighting3.3.8. Hard Disk Drives B. Thermal Management of the Device ComponentsC. Battery Management3.3.9. The Concept of Smart Battery3.3.10. Using Battery Packs in Extreme Environments3.3.11. Radio Frequency Interferences3.3.12. Battery Charging3.4. Trends in Battery Selection for Portable DevicesReferencesChapter 4Industrial Applications (Except Road Vehicles) 4.1. Introduction4.2. Meters4.2.1. Power Meters4.2.2. Gas Meters4.2.3. Water Meters4.2.4. Heat Meters4.2.5. Flow Meters4.2.6. Other Meters4.2.7. Meters with AMR Capability4.3. Data Loggers4.4. Sensors and Sensor Networks4.5. Alarms and Security Systems4.5.1. Portable Video Surveillance4.5.2. Wireless Alarms4.5.3. Remote Level Control4.5.4. Power Line Surveillance4.5.5. Pipeline Inspection Gauges (PIG)4.5.6. Access Control Systems4.6. Automatic Assistance Systems4.6.1. Emergency Lights4.6.2. Beacons4.6.3. Automatic Crash Notification (ACN)4.7. Oil Drilling4.8. Oceanography4.8.1. Current Meters4.8.2. GPS Buoys4.8.3. Seismometry4.8.3.1. Tsunami Detection4.8.4. Underwater Gliders4.8.5. Location by Argos System4.9. Tracking and Monitoring Systems4.9.1. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Electronic Toll Collection (ETC)4.9.2. Satellite Tracking4.9.2.1. The GPS Constellation4.10. Meteorology and Atmospheric Science4.10.1. Meteorological Satellites4.10.2. Launchers4.10.3. Portable Weather and Ambient Monitoring Stations4.11. Aerospace Applications4.11.1. Aircraft4.11.2. Planetary and Space Exploration Missions4.11.2.1. Robotic Space Exploration4.11.2.2. Human Exploration Missions4.11.2.3. General Characteristics of Space Batteries4.11.2.4. Examples of Missions4.12. Military Applications4.12.1. Ammunitions4.12.2. Unmanned Air Systems4.12.3. Soldier Equipment4.12.4. Miscellaneous Naval Applications4.13. Robotics4.13.1. Details on the Robot’s Hardware4.13.2. Examples of Mobile Autonomous Robots Mobile Microrobots4.14. Micro Electromechanical Systems (MEMS)4.15. Farming Applications4.16. Energy-Related Stationary Applications4.16.1. Load Levelling, Power Quality and UPS4.16.2. Telecommunications4.17. Real Time Clock and Memory Backup 4.18. Wireless ConnectivityReferencesChapter 5Vehicle Applications: Traction and Control Systems5.1. Introduction5.2. Electric Vehicles (EV)5.2.1. New Proposals: Will They Succeed?5.3. Basics of Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV)5.3.1. Micro Hybrids 5.3.2. Soft Hybrids 5.3.3. Mild Hybrids5.3.4. Full Hybrids or “Power Assist”5.3.5. Plug-in Hybrids (PHEV)5.3.6. Fuel Cell Hybrid EV (FCHEV)5.3.7. Large Hybrid Vehicles: Buses, Light Trucks and Tramways5.4. More Information on Hybrid Vehicles5.4.1. Present HEV Production and Perspectives5.4.2. Toyota Prius5.5. Traction Batteries5.5.1. General Requirements5.5.2. Battery Management System (BMS)5.5.3. Battery Technologies5.5.3.1. Lead-Acid Batteries5.5.3.2. Ni-MH Batteries5.5.3.3. Li-Ion Batteries5.5.3.4. Other Battery Chemistries5.6. The Vehicle Control Systems 5.6.1. Recent Developments in Automotive Lead-Acid Batteries5.7. Electric BikesReferencesList of Acronyms