Basic Medical Endocrinology book cover

Basic Medical Endocrinology

Basic Medical Endocrinology, 4e provides up-to-date coverage of rapidly unfolding advances in the understanding of hormones involved in regulating most aspects of bodily functions. Topics are approached from the perspective of a physiologist with over 40 years of teaching experience. This fourth edition is richly illustrated in full color with both descriptive schematic diagrams and laboratory findings obtained in clinical studies. Each of the fourteen chapters starts with an overview of the topic and ends with a Suggested Reading list. Initial chapters lay a foundation by presenting basic information and principles of hormone structure, secretion, and actions, and the physiological roles of the principal endocrine glands. Subsequent chapters address the role of the endocrine system in solving such physiological problems as the regulation of the volume and composition of body fluids in the face of changing environmental demands, and the regulation of short- and long-term energy balance. The final chapters deal with the indispensable role of hormones in growth, development and reproduction.

Audience
Upper division undergraduate and graduate students in biology, physiology, zoology; medical students; researchers and professionals in endocrinology and bone/mineral research.

Hardbound, 344 Pages

Published: August 2008

Imprint: Academic Press

ISBN: 978-0-12-373975-9

Contents

  • List of FiguresPreface to the Fourth Edition Preface to the First EditionPreface to the Second EditionPreface to the Third EditionChapter 1 Introduction Biosynthesis of Hormones Storage and Secretion Hormones in Blood Hormone Degradation Mechanisms of Hormone Action Specificity Characteristics of Receptors Hormonal Actions Mediated by Intracellular Receptors Hormonal Actions Mediated by Surface Receptors The G-protein Coupled Receptors Receptors that Signal through Tyrosine Kinase Regulation of Hormone Secretion Negative Feedback Positive Feedback Feed Forward Measurement of Hormones Immunoassays Hormone Levels in Blood Suggested ReadingChapter 2 Pituitary Gland Morphology Physiology of the Anterior Pituitary Gland Glycoprotein Hormones Growth Hormone and Prolactin Adrenocorticotropin Family Development of the Anterior Pituitary Gland Regulation of Anterior Pituitary Function Hypophysiotropic Hormones Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone (TRH) Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone Control of GH Secretion Corticotropin Releasing Hormone Dopamine and control of Prolactin Secretion Secretion and Actions of Hypophysiotropic Hormones Feedback Control of Anterior Pituitary Function Physiology of the Posterior Pituitary Regulation of Posterior Pituitary Function Suggested ReadingChapter 3 Thyroid Gland Morphology Thyroid Hormones Biosynthesis Iodine Trapping Thyroglobulin Synthesis Incorporation of Iodine Hormone Storage Secretion Control of Thyroid Function Effects of Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Effects of the Thyroid-Stimulating Immunoglobulins Autoregulation of Thyroid Hormone Synthesis Thyroid Hormones in Blood Metabolism of Thyroid Hormones Physiological Effects of Thyroid Hormones Growth and Maturation Skeletal System Central Nervous System AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM METABOLISM Oxidative Metabolism and Thermogenesis Carbohydrate Metaboliism Lipid Metabolism Nitrogen Metabolism Regulation of Thyroid Hormone Secretion Mechanism of Thyroid Hormone Action Suggested ReadingChapter 4 Adrenal Glands Morphology Adrenal Cortex Adrenocortical Hormones Control of Adrenocortical Hormone Synthesis Adrenal Steroid Hormones in Blood Postsecretory Metabolism of Adrenal Cortical Hormones Physiology of the Mineralocorticoids Effects of Aldosterone on the Kidney Regulation of Aldosterone Secretion Physiology of the Glucocorticoids Effects on Energy Metabolism Effects on Water Balance Effects on Lung DevelopmentGlucocorticoids and Responses to Injury Adrenocortical Function during Stress Mechanism of Action of Glucocorticoids Regulation of Glucocorticoid Secretion Adrenal Medulla Biosynthesis of the Medullary Catecholamines Storage, Release, and Metabolism of Medullary Hormones Physiological Actions of Medullary Hormones Regulation Of Adrenal Medullary Function Suggested ReadingChapter 5 Principles of Hormonal Integration Integration of Hormonal Signals at the Cellular and Molecular Level Augmentation, Antagonism, and Synergy Permissiveness Maintaining Signal Fidelity Modulation of Responding Systems Sensitivity and Capacity Spare Receptors Hormonal Integration at the Whole Animal Level Redundancy Reinforcement Push-Pull MechanismsChapter 6 Hormones of the Gastrointestinal Tract Functional Anatomy of the GI Tract Overview of Digestion and Absorption Hormones of the Gastrointestinal Tract The Gastrin/Cholecystokinin Family Physiological Actions of Gastrin Regulation of Gastrin Secretion Cholecystokinin (CCK) The Secretin/Glucagon Superfamily Secretin 114 GIP (Glucose-dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide/Gastric Inhibitory Peptide) Glucagon-like Peptides 1 and 2 (GLP-1 and GLP-2) The Pancreatic Polypeptide Family Neurotensin The Motilin/Ghrelin Family Concluding Comments Suggested ReadingChapter 7 The Pancreatic Islets Morphology of the Endocrine Pancreas Glucagon Biosynthesis, Secretion, and Metabolism Physiological Actions of Glucagon Glucose Production Glycogenolysis Gluconeogenesis Lipogenesis and Ketogenesis Ureogenesis Regulation of Glucagon Secretion Insulin Biosynthesis, Secretion, and Metabolism Physiological Actions of Insulin Effects of Insulin Deficiency Effects on Adipose Tissue Effects on Muscle 138 Effects on Liver Mechanism of Insulin Action Regulation of Insulin Secretion Glucose Other Circulating Metabolites Hormonal and Neural Control Cellular Events Somatostatin Suggested ReadingChapter 8 Hormonal Regulation of Fuel Metabolism General Features of Energy Metabolism Body Fuels Glucose Glycogen Protein Fat Problems Inherent in the Use of Glucose and Fat as Metabolic Fuels Fuel Consumption The Glucose Fatty Acid Cycle AMP Activated Kinase (AMPK) Overall Regulation of Blood Glucose Concentration Short-term Regulation Long-term Regulation Integrated Actions of Metabolic Hormones Adipose Issue Muscle Liver Pancreatic Islets Regulation of Metabolism during Feeding and Fasting Postprandial Period Postabsorptive Period Fasting Hormonal Interactions during Exercise Short-Term Maximal Effort Sustained Aerobic Exercise Long-term Regulation of Fuel Storage Adipogenesis Hypothalamic Control of Appetite and Food Intake Peripheral Input to Hypothalamic Feeding and Satiety Neurons Adiposity Signals Leptin Insulin as an Adiposity Signal Adipokines Satiety Signals Perspective Suggested ReadingChapter 9 Regulation of Salt and Water Balance General Considerations Salt and Water Balance Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) Antidiuretic Effect Effects on Blood Pressure Regulation of ADH Secretion Plasma Osmolality Blood Volume Dysfunctional States The Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Actions of Angiotensin II Actions on the Adrenal Cortex Actions on the Kidney Cardiovascular Effects Central Nervous System Effects Regulation of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Atrial Natriuretic Factor (ANF) Physiological Actions Cardiovascular Actions Renal Actions Effects on Aldosterone Secretion Other Effects Regulation of ANF Secretion Integrated Compensatory Responses to Changes in Salt and Water Balance Hemorrhage Response of the Renin Angiotensin System Response of the ADH System Response of Aldosterone Response of ANF Dehydration Salt Loading and Depletion Suggested ReadingChapter 10 Hormonal Regulation of Calcium Balance General Features of Calcium Balance Distribution of Calcium in the Body Calcium Balance Intestinal Absorption Bone Kidney Phosphorus Balance Parathyroid Glands and Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) Biosynthesis, Storage, and Secretion of PTH Mechanisms of Parathyroid Hormone Action Physiological Actions Of PTH Actions on Bone Actions on Kidney Effects on Intestinal Absorption PTH Fragments Parathyroid Hormone-Related Peptide (PTHRP) Regulation Of PTH Secretion Calcitonin Cells of Origin Biosynthesis, Secretion, and Metabolism Physiological Actions of Calcitonin Actions on Bone Actions on Kidney Regulation of Secretion The Vitamin D-Endocrine System Synthesis and Metabolism Physiological Actions of 1,25(OH)2D3 Actions on Intestine Actions on Bone Actions on Kidney Actions on Parathyroid Glands Regulation Of 1,25(OH)2D3 Production Calcium Regulation of Plasma Calcium Concentrations Integrated Actions of Calcitropic Hormones Response to a Hypocalcemic Challenge Response to a Hypercalcemic Challenge Other Hormones That Influence Calcium Balance Suggested ReadingChapter 11 Hormonal Control of Growth Growth Hormone Synthesis, Secretion, and Metabolism Mode of Action Physiological Actions of Growth Hormone Effects on Skeletal Growth Effects of GH/IGF-I on Body Composition Regulation of GH Secretion Effects of Age Regulators of GH Secretion Actions Of GHRH, Somatostatin, IGF-I, and GH Relin on the Somatotrope Thyroid Hormones Dependence of GH Synthesis and Secretion on T3 Importance of T3 for Expression Of GH Actions Insulin Gonadal Hormones Effects of Estrogens on Epiphyseal Growth Plates Effects on Growth Hormone Secretion and Action Effects of Androgens Glucocorticoids Suggested ReadingChapter 12 Hormonal Control of Reproduction in the Male Morphology of the Testes Leydig Cells and Seminiferous Tubules Male Reproductive Tract Control of Testicular Function Leydig Cells Germinal Epithelium Testosterone Secretion and Metabolism Mechanism of Action Effects on the Male Genital Tract Effects on Secondary Sexual Characteristics Sexual Differentiation Development of Internal Reproductive Ducts and Their Derivatives Development of the External Genitalia Testicular Descent into the Scrotum Postnatal Development Anomalies of Sexual Differentiation Regulation of Testicular Function Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone and the Hypothalamic Pulse Generator Negative Feedback Regulators Inhibin and Testosterone Prepuberty Puberty Suggested ReadingChapter 13 Hormonal Control of Reproduction in the Female: The Menstrual Cycle Female Reproductive Tract Ovaries Folliculogenesis Oviducts and Uterus Ovarian Hormones Estrogens Progesterone Inhibin Relaxin Control of Ovarian Function Effects of FSH and LH on the Developing Follicle Estradiol Production Follicular Development Cellular Actions of FSH and LH Effects on Ovulation Effects on Corpus Luteum Formation Effects on Oocyte Maturation Effects on Corpus Luteal Function Effects on Ovarian Blood Flow Physiological Actions of Ovarian Steroid Hormones Effects on the Reproductive Tract Menstruation Effects on the Mammary Glands Other Effects of Ovarian Hormones Mechanism of Action Regulation of the Reproductive Cycle Pattern of Hormones in Blood during the Ovarian Cycle Regulation Of FSH And LH Secretion Negative Feedback Aspects Selection of the Dominant Follicle Positive Feedback Aspects Neural Control of Gonadotropin Secretion Sites of Feedback Control Timing of Reproductive Cycles Suggested ReadingChapter 14 Hormonal Control of Pregnancy and Lactation Fertilization and Implantation Gamete Transport Role of the Oviducts Implantation and the Formation of the Placenta The Placenta Placental Hormones Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG) Human Chorionic Somatomammotropin (HCS) Progesterone Estrogens The Role of the Fetal Adrenal Cortex The Role of Progesterone and Estrogens in Sustaining Pregnancy Maternal Adaptations to Pregnancy Cardiovascular Adaptations Renal Adaptations Osmoregulation and Thirst Respiratory Adjustments Gas Exchange Metabolic Adjustments Calcium Balance Parturition The Role of Corticotropin Releasing Hormone (CRH) The Role of Oxytocin Lactation Growth and Development of the Mammary Glands Milk Production Lactation and Maternal Calcium Balance Mechanism of Prolactin Action Neuroendocrine Mechanisms Milk Let-Down Reflex Cellular Actions of Oxytocin Control of Prolactin Secretion Cellular Regulation of Prolactin Secretion Prolactin in Blood Lactation and Resumption of Ovarian Cycles Suggested ReadingIndex

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