Audio Engineering: Know It All


  • Douglas Self, Douglas Self has a worldwide reputation as a leading authority on audio amplifier design, but it is perhaps less well known that he has devoted a good deal of study to small-signal circuitry, including many years as the chief design engineer at one of the major mixing console manufacturers, where his achievements included winning a Design Council Award. His rigorous, skeptical, and thoroughly practical approach to design has been applied to the small signal area as well, and some of the results to be found in this book. Senior designer of high-end audio amplifiers and contributor to Electronics World magazine, Douglas has worked with many top audio names, including Cambridge Audio, TAG-McLaren Audio, and Soundcraft Electronics.
  • Ben Duncan, International consultant in high quality Audio Electronics, Pro & Hi-Fi; and prolific equipment designer. See Ben Duncan Research websites.
  • Ian Sinclair, Long-standing technical author, UK
  • Richard Brice, Commercial Director of Miranda Technologies, a global company specialising in television and channel-branding equipment in Saint-Laurent, Canada
  • John Linsley Hood, (1925-2004) Independent Technical Author
  • Andrew Singmin, Education: Master's Degree, Semiconductor Physics from Brunel University inLondon; Ph.D., Solid State Physics from the University of London., Most recently Quality Assurance Manager at Accelerix in Ottawa, Canada. Currently working as an ISO 9000 Quality Assurance Manager for Conexant Systems Inc. in Ottawa, Canada.Over 25 years of experience in electronics/semiconductor device technology.Has written for Popular Electronics and the Electronics Handbook, as well asBeginning Analog Electronics Through Projects, 2E and Beginning Digital Electronics Through Projects, Modern Electronics Soldering Techniques,Dictionary of Modern Electronics Technology, and Practical Audio Amplifiercircuit Projects
  • Don Davis, Don Davis and his wife, Carolyn, founded Synergetic Audio Concepts in 1972, retired in 1995. Don is a Senior member of the IEEE, Fellow of the AES and has received the Heyser Award, Life Time Achievement Award from NSCA and from USITT, Recognition for participation in the Brussels World Fair 1958 from the U.S. Dept. of State, and for the U.S. Exhibition in Moscow in 1959.
  • Eugene Patronis, Eugene Patronis is Professor of Physics Emeritus at the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. He has also served as an industrial and governmental consultant in the fields of acoustics and electronics.
  • John Watkinson, Reading, UK International consultant in audio, video and data recording.

The Newnes Know It All Series takes the best of what our authors have written to create hard-working desk references that will be an engineer's first port of call for key information, design techniques and rules of thumb. Guaranteed not to gather dust on a shelf!Audio engineers need to master a wide area of topics in order to excel. The Audio Engineering Know It All covers every angle, including digital signal processing, power supply design, microphone and loudspeaker technology as well as audio compression.
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Electronics Engineers; Audio Engineers and Technicians


Book information

  • Published: September 2008
  • Imprint: NEWNES
  • ISBN: 978-1-85617-526-5

Table of Contents

Table of ContentsPart I Fundamentals of SoundChapter 1 Audio Principles1.1 The physics of sound1.2 Wavelength1.3 Periodic and aperiodic signals1.4 Sound and the ear1.5 The cochlea1.6 Mental processes1.7 Level and loudness1.8 Frequency discrimination1.9 Frequency response and linearity1.10 The sine wave1.11 Root mean square measurements1.12 The deciBel1.13 Audio level meteringReferencesChapter 2. Measurement2.1 Concepts Underlying the Decibel and Its Use in Sound Systems2.2 Measuring Electrical Power2.3 Expressing Power as an Audio Level2.4 Conventional Practice2.5 The Decibel in Acoustics—LP, LW, and LI2.6 Acoustic Intensity Level (LI), Acoustic Power Level (LW), and Acoustic Pressure Level (LP)2.7 Inverse Square Law2.8 Directivity Factor2.9 Ohm’s Law2.10 A Decibel Is a Decibel Is a Decibel2.11 Older References2.12 The Equivalent Level (LEQ) in Noise Measurements2.13 Combining Decibels2.14 Combining Voltage2.15 Using the Log Charts2.16 Finding the Logarithm of a Number to Any Base2.17 Semitone Intervals2.18 System Gain Changes2.19 The VU and the VI Instrument2.20 Calculating the Number of Decades in a Frequency Span2.21 Deflection of the Eardrum at Various Sound Levels2.22 The Phon2.23 The Tempered Scale2.24 Measuring Distortion2.25 The Acoustical Meaning of Harmonic Distortion2.26 Playback Systems in Studios2.27 Decibels and Percentages2.28 SummaryBibliographyChapter 3 Acoustic Environment3.1 The Acoustic Environment3.2 Inverse Square Law3.3 Atmospheric Absorption3.4 Velocity of Sound 3.5 Temperature-Dependent Velocity 3.6 The Effect of Altitude on the Velocity of Sound in Air 3.7 Typical Wavelengths3.8 Doppler Effect3.9 Reflection and Refraction 3.10 Effect of a Space Heater on Flutter Echo 3.11 Absorption3.12 Classifying Sound Fields 3.13 The Acoustic Environment Indoors 3.14 ConclusionII. Audio ElectronicsChapter 4 Components4.1 Building Block ComponentsChapter 5 Power supply design5.1 High Power Systems5.2. Solid State Rectifiers5.3. Music Power5.4. Influence of Signal Type on Power Supply Design5.5. High Current Power Supply Systems5.6. Half-wave and Full-wave Rectification5.7. DC Supply Line Ripple Rejection5.8. Voltage Regulator Systems5.9. Series Regulator Layouts5.10. Over-current Protection5.11. Integrated Circuit (Three Terminal) Voltage Regulator ICs5.12. Typical Contemporary Commercial Practice5.13. Battery Supplies5.14. Switch-mode Power SuppliesIII Preamplifiers and Amplifiers Chapter 6 Introduction to Audio AmplificationCHAPTER 7 Preamplifiers and input signals7.1 REQUIREMENTS7.2 SIGNAL VOLTAGE AND IMPEDANCE LEVELS7.3 GRAMOPHONE PICK-UP INPUTS7.4 INPUT CIRCUITRY7.5 MOVING COIL PU HEAD AMPLIFIER DESIGN7.6 CIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS7.7 INPUT CONNECTIONS7.8 INPUT SWITCHING7.9 Voltage amplifiers and controls7.10 PREAMPLIFIER STAGES7.11 LINEARITY7.12 NOISE LEVELS7.13 OUTPUT VOLTAGE CHARACTERISTICS7.14 VOLTAGE AMPLIFIER DESIGN7.15 CONSTANT-CURRENT SOURCES AND 'CURRENT MIRRORS'7.16 PERFORMANCE STANDARDS7.17 AUDIBILITY OF DISTORTION7.18 GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS7.19 CONTROLSChapter 8 Interfacing and processing8.1 The Input8.2 RF filtration8.3 The balanced input8.4 Sub-sonic protection and high-pass filtering8.5 Damageprotection8.6 What are process functions?8.7 Computer controlChapter 9 Audio amplifiers9.1. Junction Transistors9.2. Control of Operating Bias9.3. Stage Gain9.4. Basic Junction Transistor Circuit Configurations9.5. Emitter-follower Systems9.6. Thermal Dissipation Limits9.6. Junction Field Effect Transistors (JFETs)9.7. Insulated Gate FETs (MOSFETs)9.8. Power BJTs vs. Power MOSFETs as Amplifier Output Devices9.9. U and D MOSFETs9.10. Useful Circuit Components9.11. Circuit Oddments9.12. Slew Rate LimitingChapter 10 Audio amplifier performance10.1 A brief history of amplifiers10.2 Amplifier architectures10.3 The three-stage architecture10.4 Power amplifier classes10.5 AC- and DC-coupled amplifiers10.6 Negative feedback in power amplifiersReferencesChapter 11. Valve (tube-based) amplifiers11.1 Valves or Vacuum Tubes 11.2 Solid State Devices 11.3 VALVE AUDIO AMPLIFIER LAYOUTS 11.4 Single-ended vs. Push–pull Operation 11.5 Phase Splitters 11.6 Output Stages 11.7 Output (Load-matching) Transformer 11.8 Effect of Output Load Impedance 11.9 Available Output Power Chapter 12 Negative feedback12.1 Amplifier stability and NFB12.2 Maximising the NFB12.3 Maximising linearity before feedback12.4 ReferencesChapter 13 Noise and grounding13.1. Audio amplifier PCB design13.2. Amplifier grounding13.3. Ground loops: how they work and how to deal with them13.4 Class I and Class II13.5 Mechanical layout and design considerationsPart IV Digital AudioChapter 14 Digital audio fundamentals14.1 Audio as data14.2 What is an audio signal?14.3 Why binary?14.4 Why digital?14.5 Some digital audio processes outlined14.6 Time compression and expansion14.7 Error correction and concealment14.8 Channel coding14.9 Audio compression14.10 Disk-based recording14.11 Rotary-head digital recorders14.12 Digital audio broadcasting14.13 NetworksChapter 15 Representation of Audio Signals15.1 Introduction15.2 Analogue and Digital15.3 Elementary Logical Processes15.4 The Significance of Bits and Bobs15.5 Transmitting Digital Signals15.6 The Analogue Audio Waveform15.7 Arithmetic15.8 Digital Filtering15.9 Other Binary Operations15.10 Sampling and Quantising15.12 Transform and Masking Coders15.13 Bibliography15.14 Other titles of interestChapter 16.Compact disc16.1 PROBLEMS WITH DIGITAL ENCODING16.2 THE RECORD-REPLAY SYSTEM16.3 THE REPLAY SYSTEM16.4 ERROR CORRECTIONChapter 17 Digital audio recording basics17.1 Types of Media17.2 Recording Media Compared17.3 Some Digital Audio Processes Outlined17.4 Hard Disc Recorders17.5 The PCM Adaptor17.6 An Open Reel Digital Recorder17.7 Rotary Head Digital Recorders17.8 Digital Compact Cassette17.9 Editing Digital Audio TapeChapter 18 Digital audio interfaces18.1 Digital audio interfaces18.2 MADI (AES10–1991) serial multi-channel audio digital interfaceChapter 19 Data compression19.1 Lossless compression19.2 Intermediate compression systems19.3 Psychoacoustic masking systems19.4 MPEG layer 1 compression (PASC)19.5 MPEG layer 2 audio coding (MUSICAM)19.6 MPEG layer 319.7 MPEG-419.8 Digital audio productionChapter 20 Digital audio production20.1 Digital audio workstations (DAWs)20.2 Audio data files20.3 Sound cards20.4 PCI bus versus ISA bus20.5 Disks and other peripheral hardware20.6 Hard drive interface standards20.7 Digital noise generation – chain-code generators20.8 NotesChapter 21 Other Digital Audio Devices21.1 Video Recorders21.2 HDCD21.3 CD Writers21.4 MPEG Systems21.5 MP321.6 Transcribing a Recording by Computer21.7 WAV Onwards21.8 DAM CD21.9 DVD and AudioV. Microphone and Loudspeaker TechnologyChapter 22 Microphone technology22.1 Microphone Sensitivity22.2 Microphone Selection22.3 Nature of Response and Directional Characteristics22.3 Wireless Microphones22.4 Microphone Connectors, Cables, and Phantom Power22.5 Measurement Microphones22.6 Bibliography29.17. ReferencesChapter 23 Loudspeakers23.1 Radiation of Sound23.2 Characteristic Impedance23.3 Radiation Impedance23.4 Radiation from a Piston23.5 Directivity23.6. Sound Pressure Produced at Distance r23.6. Electrical Analogue23.7. Diaphragm/Suspension Assembly23.8. Diaphragm Size23.9. Diaphragm Profile23.10. Straight-Sided Cones23.11 Material23.12 Soft Domes23.13 Suspensions23.14 Voice Coil23.15 Moving Coil Loudspeaker23.16 Motional ImpedanceChapter 24 Loudspeaker enclosures24.1 Loudspeakers24.2 The interrelation of componentsChapter 25 Headphones 25.1 A Brief History25.2 Pros and Cons of Headphone Listening25.3 Headphone Types25.4 Basic Headphone Types25.5 Measuring Headphones25.6 The FuturePart VI. Sound Reproduction SystemsChapter 26 Tape Recording26.1 Introduction26.2 Magnetic theory26.3 The physics of magnetic recording26.4 Bias26.5 Equalisation26.6 Tape speed26.7 Speed stability26.8 Recording formats – analogue machinesChapter 27 Recording consoles27.1 Introduction27.2 Standard levels and level meters27.3 Standard operating levels and line-up tones27.4 Digital line-up27.5 Sound mixer architecture and circuit blocks27.6 Audio mixer circuitry27.7 Mixer automation27.8 Digital consoles27.9 NoteChapter 28 Video synchronization28.1. Introduction28.2. Persistence of vision28.3. Cathode ray tube and raster scanning28.4. Television signal28.5. Colour perception28.6. Colour television28.7. Analogue video interfaces28.8. Digital video28.9. Embedded digital audio in the digital video interface28.10. Timecode28.11. NotesChapter 29 Room acoustics29.1 Introduction29.2 Noise Control29.3 Studio and Control Room AcousticsReferencePart VII Audio Test and MeasurementCHAPTER 30 Fundamentals and instruments30.1 INSTRUMENT TYPES30.2 SIGNAL GENERATORS30.3 ALTERNATIVE WAVEFORM TYPES30.4 DISTORTION MEASUREMENT.