Atlas of Material Damage book cover

Atlas of Material Damage

Product reliability is the major aim of technological know-how. Uninterrupted performance of manufactured products at typical and extreme conditions of its use is the major goal of product development and the most important indicator of material quality.

This book provides information on defect formation and materials damage. The following aspects of material performance are discussed:

1 Effect of composition, morphological features, and structure of different materials on material
performance, durability, and resilience

2 Analysis of causes of material damage and degradation

3 Effect of processing conditions on material damage

4 Effect of combined action of different degradants on industrial products

5 Systematic analysis of existing knowledge regarding the modes of damage and morphology of

damaged material

6 Methods of analysis of material damage

7 Comparison of experiences generated in different sectors of industry regarding the most
frequently encountered failures, reasons for these failures, and potential improvements
preventing future damage

The name "Atlas" was selected to indicate emphasis of the book on illustration with many real examples of damaged products and discussion of causes of damage and potential for material improvements.

Special chapter contains examples of damage encountered in different groups of industrial products. Each group of materials is discussed according to the following breakdown:

1 Examples of damage typically encountered in a group under discussion

2 Results of structural analysis of degradation (e.g., image analysis, surface and bulk mapping by
analytic techniques such as NMR, XPS, thermography, etc.)

3 Credit to the source of images, references, and explanations

4 Conditions under which material was degraded

5 Discussion of morphological features and observations

Audience

Engineers: Civil, Mechanical, Materials, Design, Maintenance, Chemical & Process

Industries: construction / civil engineering, automotive / aerospace / transportation, chemical processing, consumer packaging, paints and coatings, petrochemical, pipeline, plastics.

Level: Practicing engineers and technicians, students seeking real-world examples and applied technique

Hardbound, 400 Pages

Published: February 2012

Imprint: Chemtec

ISBN: 978-1-895198-48-5

Contents

  • 1 Introduction

    2 Material composition, structure, and morphological features

    2.1.1 Materials having predominantly homogeneous structure and composition

    2.1.2 Heterogeneous materials

    2.1.3 Crystalline forms and amorphous regions

    2.1.4 Materials containing insoluble additives (e.g., fillers)

    2.1.5 Materials containing immiscible phases (e.g., polymer alloys and blends)

    2.1.6 Composites

    2.1.7 Multi-component layered materials (laminates, coextruded materials, film sandwiches,

    coated fabrics)

    2.1.8 Material combinations obtained by jointing (joints, fasteners, inclusions)

    2.1.9 Foams, porosity

    2.1.10 Compressed solids (tablets, sintered materials)

    2.1.11 Material surface versus bulk

    3 Effect of processing on material structure

    3.1 Temperature

    3.2 Pressure

    3.3 Time

    3.4 Viscosity

    3.5 Flow rate (shear rate)

    3.6 Deformation

    3.7 Orientation

    3.8 Process related defects

    4 Scale of damage – basic concept

    4.1 Atomic (breaking interatomic bonds)

    4.2 Microscale (micro-imperfections and their effect on damage initiation and growth)

    4.3 Macroscale (material property determination, testing and control)

    5 Microscopic mechanisms of damage caused by different degradants

    5.1 Bulk (mechanical forces)

    5.1.1 Elastic-brittle fracture

    5.1.2 Elastic-plastic deformation

    5.1.3 Time-related damage

    5.1.3.1 Fatigue (fretting)

    5.1.3.2 Creep

    5.1.3.3 Creep-fatigue

    5.1.3.4 Thermo-creep

    5.1.4 Impact damage

    5.1.5 Shear fracture

    5.1.6 Compression set

    5.1.7 Bending forces

    5.1.8 Anisotropic damage

    5.2 Electric forces

    5.2.1 Tracking

    5.2.2 Arcing

    5.2.3 Cell deformation

    5.2.4 Flooding and drying out (batteries)

    5.2.5 Pin-holes

    5.2.6 Cracks

    5.2.7 Delamination

    5.2.8 Surface impurity

    5.2.9 Humidity

    5.2.10 Temperature

    5.3 Surface-initiated damage

    5.3.1 Physical forces

    5.3.1.1 Thermal treatment

    5.3.1.1.1 Process heat

    5.3.1.1.2 Conditions of performance

    5.3.1.1.3 Infrared

    5.3.1.1.4 Frictional heat

    5.3.1.1.5 Low temperature effects

    5.3.1.1.6 Thermal stresses

    5.3.1.2 High energy radiation

    5.3.1.2.1 Ionizing radiation (alpha, beta rays)

    5.3.1.2.2 Gamma rays

    5.3.1.2.3 Laser beams

    5.3.1.2.4 Cosmic rays

    5.3.1.2.5 Plasma

    5.3.1.3 Weathering

    5.3.1.4 Elution

    5.3.2 Mechanical action

    5.3.2.1 Frictional wear, gouging, scratching

    5.3.2.2 Impact wear

    5.3.2.3 Adhesive failure, sliding

    5.3.3 Chemical reactions

    5.3.3.1 Oxidation

    5.3.3.2 Ozone

    5.3.3.3 Sulfur dioxide

    5.3.3.4 Hydrogen embrittlement

    5.3.3.5 Particulate matter

    5.3.3.6 Other gaseous corroding substances

    5.3.3.7 Solvent crazing

    5.4 Biological forces of damage (example of joint action of chemical and biological mechanisms)

    5.4.1 Biodegradation and biodeterioration of materials in conditions of their performance and

    disposal

    5.4.2 Effect of body fluids on performance and bioabsorption of polymeric materials in medical

    applications

    5.4.3 Effect of environment on performance of controlled–release substances in pharmaceutical

    applications

    5.5 Corrosion (example of joint action of physical and chemical degradants)

    5.5.1 Conductive polymers

    5.6 Loss of adhesion (example of joint action of mechanical, physical, and chemical forces)

    5.7 Further examples of action of combination of degradants

    6 Testing in damage assessment and prevention

    7 Data on damage of different groups of products

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