Arsenic Exposure and Health Effects IIIEdited by
- W.R. Chappell, Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado at Boulder, Campus Box 136, PO Box 173364, Denver, CO 80217-3364, USA
- C.O. Abernathy, Office of Drinking Water, US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, USA
- R.L. Calderon, US Environmental Protection Agency, Human Studies Facility (MD 58a), 104 Mason Farm Road, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7315, USA
The Society of Environmental Geochemistry and Health (SEGH) Third International Conference on Arsenic Exposure and Health Effects was held from July 12-15, 1998 in San Diego, California. Several outstanding papers and posters generated lively discussion and debate not only about scientific issues but also about policy and regulatory issues.
While developed countries are considering spending perhaps billions of dollars per year to reach concentrations of 10 micrograms per liter or less, countries like Bangladesh, India and China are trying to deal with much more severe, epidemic scale, arsenic problems with millions of dollars or less.
Like its predecessors in 1994 and 1995, The Third SEGH International Conference on Arsenic Exposure and Health Effects (1998) continued the theme of global impact of arsenic. In addition, two new countries with significant arsenic problems, Inner Mongolia and Bangladesh, were represented. The Bangladesh problem could be larger than the one in West Bengal with a possible two-thirds of the population at risk. The conference also featured a session on mechanisms of cancer carcinogenesis. Several scientists presented their work on this important issue which is central to considerations of such questions as the shape of the dose-response curve at low doses. This latter issue was featured in the final session of the conference. Another session that was new and of great interest was on the treatment of victims of chronic arsenic poisoning.
This was the most dynamic conference to date and this resulting monograph represents the state-of-the-art in arsenic research on a worldwide basis. It will contribute to the solution of the many problems caused by arsenic exposure throughout the world.
For institutions, professionals and researchers concerned with geochemistry, environmental science based chemistry, molecular biology, biochemistry, epidemiology and medicine.
Published: December 1999
- Dedication—Kurt J. Irgolic. Preface. List of Contributors.Occurrence and Exposure.Arsenic in the global environment: looking towards the millenium (I. Thornton). Arsenic in the groundwater supplies of the United States (A.H. Welch et al.). Airborne exposure to arsenic occurring in coal fly ash (J.W. Yager et al.). Consistency of biomarkers of exposure to inorganic arsenic: review of recent data (J.P. Buchet et al.). Hair arsenic as an index of toxicity (J.T. Hindmarsh et al.).Food and Other Exposure Media.Estimating total arsenic exposure in the United States (R.E. Grissom). Arsenic compounds in terrestrial biota (K.J. Irgolic et al.). Exposure to arsenosugars from seafood ingestion and speciation of urinary arsenic metabolites (X. Chris Le et al.). Dietary exposure to inorganic arsenic (R.A. Schoof et al.). Exposure to inorganic arsenic from fish and shellfish (J.M. Donohue, C.O. Abernathy).General Overview of Arsenic Risk.Application of the risk assessment approaches in the USEPA proposed cancer guidelines to inorganic arsenic (H.J. Clewell et al.). Emerging epidemics of arseniasis in Asia (C.-J. Chen et al.).Health Effects—Non-Cancer.The present situation of chronic arsenism and research in China (G.F. Sun et al.).Human exposure to arsenic and health effects in Bayingnormen, Inner Mongolia (H.Z. Ma et al.). Drinking water arsenic: the Millard County, Utah mortality study (D. Riedel Lewis). Association between chronic arsenic exposure and children's intelligence in Thailand (U. Siripitayakunkit et al.). Reproductive and developmental effects associated with chronic arsenic exposure (C. Hopenhayn-Rich et al.). Groundwater arsenic contamination and suffering of people in Bangladesh (U.K. Chowdhury et al.). Inorganic arsenic and prenatal development: a comprehensive evaluation for human risk assessment (J.F. Holson et al.).Health Effects—Cancer.Cancer risks from arsenic in drinking water: implications for drinking water standards (A.H. Smith et al.). Preliminary incidence analysis in skin basalioma patients exposed to arsenic in environmental and occupational settings (V. Bencko et al.). Model sensitivity in an analysis of arsenic exposure and bladder cancer in southwestern Taiwan (K.H. Morales et al.). Tumours in mice induced by exposure to sodium arsenate in drinking water (J.C. Ng et al.). Subchronic toxicity study of sodium arsenite in methyl-deficient male C57BL/6 mice (R.S. Okoji et al.).Mechanisms.Arsenite genotoxicity may be mediated by interference with DNA damage-inducible signaling (T.G. Rossman). Modulation of DNA repair and glutathione levels in human keratinocytes by micromolar arsenite (E.T. Snow et al.). Evaluation of cell proliferative activity in the rat urinary bladder after feeding high doses of cacodylic acid (S.M. Cohen et al.). Differences of promoting activity and loss of heterozygosity between dimethylarsenic acid and sodium L-ascorbate in F1 rat urinary bladder carcinogenesis (T. Chen et al.).Metabolism.Variation in human metabolism of arsenic (M. Vahter). Profile of urinary arsenic metabolites in children chronically exposed to inorganic arsenic in Mexico (L. María Del Razo et al.). How is inorganic arsenic detoxified? (H.V. Aposhian et al.). Arsenic metabolism after pulmonary exposure (D.E. Carter et al.). Metabolism and toxicity of arsenicals in cultured cells (M. Styblo et al.). Proportions of arsenic species in human urine (M.E. Farago, P. Kavanagh).Interventions and Treatment.Chronic arsenic toxicity: epidemiology, natural history and treatment (D.N. Guha Mazumder et al.). Clinical approaches to the treatment of chronic arsenic intoxication: from chelation to chemoprevention (M.J. Kosnett). Major interventions on chronic arsenic poisoning in Ronpibool District, Thailand—review and long-term follow up (C.Choprapawon, S. Ajjimangkul). Rapid action programme: emergency arsenic mitigation programme in two hundred villages in Bangladesh (Q. Quamruzzaman et al.). Public health hazard surveillance and response to arsenic contamination (H. Anderson, L.C. Warzecha).Treatment and Remediation.Full-scale application of coagulation processes for arsenic removal in Chile: a successful case study (A.M. Sancha). Development of an anion exchange process for arsenic removal from water (D.A. Clifford et al.). Subterranean removal of arsenic from groundwater (U. Rott, M. Friedle).Dose Response.Mode of action studies for assessing carcinogenic risks posed by inorganic arsenic (M.E. Andersen et al.). Observations on arsenic exposure and health effects (K.G. Brown). Keyword index.