Apes of the World

Their Social Behavior, Communication, Mentality, and Ecology


  • Russell H. Tuttle, University of Chicago, IL, USA

The first major and most comprehensive synthesis of results from ecological, naturalistic behavioral, comparative psychological, and humanoid language research on apes since the classic work, The Great Apes, by Robert M. and Ada Yerkes in 1929. Based on more than 1,360 references from scientific journals, monographs, symposium volumes, and other public sources, the book contains a wealth of current information on the taxonomy, ecology, postural and locomotive behavior, natural communications, and social behavior of the apes. Topical discussions in the book are organized to show the extent of progress, including the development of new research questions, and the way our views of apes have changed as new information has become available since 1929.
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Animal scientists, veterinarians, agricultural and zoological managers and handlers, animal behaviorists.


Book information

  • Published: December 1986
  • ISBN: 978-0-8155-1104-5

Table of Contents

Terminology, Taxonomy, Distribution and PhylogenyThe Hylobatid ApesThe Pongid ApesTemperament and TaxonomyFossilsPositional BehaviorHylobatid ApesOrangutansCommon ChimpanzeesBonobosGorillasFeeding BehaviorFood Competition and Niche Differentiation among Asian ApesComparison of the Feeding Ecologies of the African ApesMeat-Eating, Hunting, Food-Sharing and CannibalismLodge Sites and NestingWhat Determines the Choice of Lodge Sites by Apes?Is Pongid Nest Making Instinctive or Learned?Nests as Tools and Exemplars of Pongid (Proto-) CultureTool BehaviorInstrumentation by CaptivesInstrumentation in the WildThe Question of CultureInterspecific LearningBrains and MentalityAnatomyBehaviorThe Problem of Self-AwarenessCommunicationArtifactual Symbols and RulesNatural CommunicationMenzel's Chimpanzees and the Social ImperativeSociality and SociobiologyWhy Monogamy?Sexual Selection in the PongidaeSynoptic Comparison of ApesReferencesIndex