Antarctica: Soils, Weathering Processes and Environment, 16By
- I.B. Campbell
- G.G.C. Claridge, N.Z. Soil Bureau, Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Lower Hutt, New Zealand
Developments in Soil Science
Published: June 1987
... an impressive book ... it not only improves our understanding of global soils, it also contributes to Antarctic glacial history and ultimately, perhaps, our understanding of global climate change ... I conclude by congratulating the authors on a fine book...
New Zealand Society of Soil Science: Soil News
This excellent account is largely a personal record of the authors' extensive and detailed research ... an invaluable addition to Antarctic scientific literature ... `Campbell and Claridge' will be the standard reference for a long time to come.
...the volume deserves a place in many personal libraries and certainly most university libraries...
The authors are to be congratulated on their synthesis, which provides a fitting culmination to their years of field work.
This book provides a wealth of information about Antarctica, illustrated throughout by 25 colour plates and an abundance of black and white photographs, figures and tables. Antarctica is currently the subject of world-wide interest, both because of its supposed potential for minerals, and because of its very high aesthetic and environmental values. In recent years, scientists from the New Zealand Soil Bureau have been involved in the investigation of soils and soil processes in as many parts of Antarctica as could be reached. They have shown how Antarctic soils vary with different environmental conditions, how soil processes in Antarctica compare with those in other parts of the world, and how the soils provide valuable information for reconstruction of the history of Antarctica. At the same time, many other workers have taken up studies of a pedological nature in Antarctica, and a great deal of information is now available. It is therefore timely to review the current state of soil science in Antarctica, for, as is found elsewhere in the world, land management needs to be in accordance with soil attributes. The authors assume that the reader has little previous knowledge of Antarctica, and therefore have provided sufficient background information to allow the Antarctic environment as it is related to soil formation to be fully understood. ... a masterly survey of the fundamental principles of Antarctic pedology, and represents the culmination of an era of exploration and scientific work.
- 1. Introduction. 2. The Geology and Geomorphology of Antarctica. Geology. Tectonic history. Significance of underlying geology to soil formation. Geomorphology. 3. The Climate of Antarctica. Climatic elements. General climatic regions. Ice-free regions. The climate of the soil. Climatic zones and soil relationships. 4. Biology of Antarctic Soils. Distribution of organisms. The influence of organisms in soil development. Biology of thermally heated ground. 5. Physical Weathering and Rock Disintegration. Physical weathering of rocks. Wind action and rock disintegration. Physical weathering within the regolith. 6. Chemical Weathering. Rock-weathering studies. Clay mineral formation. Calcite and gypsum accumulations. Influence of salts on soil weathering. 7. Soils and Soil Properties. Summary of pedological research. The soil properties. Salt horizons. Soil depth. Frozen ground. Particle-size differences within the profile. Consistence and structure. Cutans. 8. Soil Distribution and Factors Influencing the Soil Pattern. Soil forming factors. Local soil moisture variations and profile development. Parent material differences and soil distribution. The influence of time on soil development. Weathering stages in soil formation. General distribution of weathered soils. Topography and the soil pattern. Microtopography and soil pattern. 9. The Salts in Antarctic Soils. The chemistry of precipitation. Chemistry of saline lakes. Bedded salt deposits of coastal regions. Salt deposits in soils. Origin of the salts. Morphology of salts. Migration of salts. Salts and time. 10. Soil Weathering and Glacial History. Evidence of multiple glaciations. Estimate of absolute age. General outline of Mcmurdo glaciations. Soil weathering stages and glacial chronology. Reconstruction of Antarctic glaciation. 11. Classification of Antarctic Soils. Generalised approaches to Antarctic soil classification. Details classification of Antarctic soils. Alternative approaches to Antarctic soil classification. Similarities with aridic soils. 12. Soils and Environmental Considerations. Soil ecosystems. Climatic sensitivity and soil development. Soil stability and renewal. (Each chapter includes an Introduction and Conclusion). References. Index.