Analysis, Removal, Effects and Risk of Pharmaceuticals in the Water Cycle book cover

Analysis, Removal, Effects and Risk of Pharmaceuticals in the Water Cycle

Occurrence and Transformation in the Environment

Pharmaceutically active substances are a class of new, so-called "emerging" contaminants that have raised great concern in recent years. Human and veterinary drugs are constantly being introduced into the environment, mainly as a result of the manufacturing process. Over time, this level of chemical input may lead to long-term concentrations and promote continual, but unnoticed adverse effects on aquatic and terrestrial organisms. Analysis, Fate and Removal of Pharmaceuticals in the Water Cycle discusses state-of-the-art analytical methods for trace determination of pharmaceuticals in environmental samples while reviewing the fate and occurrence of pharmaceuticals in the water cycle (elimination in wastewater and drinking water treatment). Focus is given to the newest developments in the treatment technologies, such as membrane bioreactors and advance oxidation processes.

Audience
Chemistry students (undergraduate/graduate), analytical and environmental chemists, toxicologists, engineers, wastewater managers, risk assessors, and policy makers

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Published: September 2007

Imprint: Elsevier

ISBN: 978-0-444-53052-3

Contents

  • Proposed Contents1. Introduction: Pharmaceuticals in the environment
    1.1. General introduction on pharmaceuticals
    - therapeutic groups
    - production and consumption rates
    - excretion rates
    1.2. Pharmaceuticals in the environment: sources and their management
    - sources and pathways for pharmaceuticals to the environment
    - the means for minimizing these sources (e.g. pollution prevention)
    2. Analysis of Pharmaceuticals as Environmental Contaminants
    2.1. Analysis of antibiotics in aqueous samples - sample preparation of waste/surface/drinking water
    2.2. Analysis of antibiotics in solid samples - sample preparation of soil/sediment/sludge samples
    2.3. Analysis of acidic drugs (analgesics/anti-inflammatory drugs, blood lipid reducing agents and others) by LC
    - sample preparation
    - LC-MS methods
    - LC-MS/MS methods
    2.4. Analysis of acidic drugs (analgesics/anti-inflammatory drugs, blood lipid reducing agents and others) by GC (including sample preparation and derivatization)
    2.5. Analysis of neutral and basic pharmaceuticals
    - analysis of aqueous samples (extraction, clean up)
    - analysis of solid samples
    2.6. Analysis of steroids/hormones
    2.7. Analysis of X-ray contrast agents
    2.8. Application of bioassays/biosensors for the analysis of pharmaceuticals in environmental samples
    3. Fate and Occurrence of Pharmaceuticals in the Water Cycle
    3.1. Occurrence of pharmaceuticals in the aqueous environment
    - wastewater
    - surface
    - drinking water
    3.2. Occurrence of pharmaceuticals in solid environmental samples
    - soil
    - sediments (river and estuary)
    - sewage sludges
    3.3. Ecotoxicity of pharmaceuticals
    - acute toxicity data
    - chronic toxicity data
    - impact of pharmaceuticals in the environment
    - environmental risk assessment
    4. Removal of Pharmaceuticals
    4.1. Biodegradation of pharmaceuticals
    - laboratory biodegradation tests
    - biodegradation pathways/metabolites
    4.2. Abiotic degradation (photodegradation) of pharmaceuticals
    4.3. Removal of pharmaceuticals in wastewater treatment plants (conventional technology - CAS)
    4.4. Removal of pharmaceuticals by advanced treatment technologies
    - membrane bioreactor technology (MBR)
    - ozonation and advanced oxidation processes (AOP)
    4.5. Removal of pharmaceuticals during drinking water production
    - elimination of pharmaceuticals by bank filtration
    - elimination in waterworks
    5. Conclusions and Needs for Future Research

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