# Analog Circuits

**Edited by**

- Robert Pease, National Semiconductor Corporation

Newnes has worked with Robert Pease, a leader in the field of analog design to select the very best design-specific material that we have to offer. The Newnes portfolio has always been know for its practical no nonsense approach and our design content is in keeping with that tradition. This material has been chosen based on its timeliness and timelessness. Designers will find inspiration between these covers highlighting basic design concepts that can be adapted to today's hottest technology as well as design material specific to what is happening in the field today. As an added bonus the editor of this reference tells you why this is important material to have on hand at all times. A library must for any design engineers in these fields.

View full description### Audience

Analog designers and engineers

### Book information

- Published: May 2008
- Imprint: NEWNES
- ISBN: 978-0-7506-8627-3

### Reviews

"The book provides good background material on topics like feedback control and stability, and it presents the basics of op-amp topologies and data conversion." - Rick Nelson, Test & Measurement World.

### Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1 Review of Feedback Systems *Introduction and Some Early History of Feedback Control *Invention of the Negative Feedback Amplifier *Control System Basics *Loop Transmission and Disturbance Rejection *Stability *Routh Stability Criterion *The Phase Margin and Gain Margin Tests *Relationship Between Damping Ratio and Phase Margin *Loop Compensation Techniques¡XLead and Lag Networks *Parenthetical Comment on Some Interesting Feedback Loops *Example 1.1: Gain of +1 amplifier *Example 1.2: Gain of +10 amplifier *Example 1.3: Integral control of reactive load *Example 1.4: Photodiode amplifier *Example 1.5: MOSFET current source *Example 1.6: Maglev example *Appendix: MATLAB Scripts MATLAB script for gain of +1 and +10 amplifiers *ReferencesChapter 2 My Approach to Feedback Loop Design *My Approach to Design *What Is a V/I Source? *An Ideal V/I Source *Designing a V/I Source *Capacitive Load Compensation *Model to Investigate Overshoot *Back To The Frequency Domain *Range of Compensation Required *Phase Margin Approach to Loop Compensation *LTX Device Power Source (DPS) Performance *Summary of My MethodCHAPTER 3 Basic Operational Amplifier Topologies and a Case Study *Basic Device Operation *Example 3.1: Case study: Design, analysis and simulation of a discrete operational amplifier *Brief Review of LM741 Op-Amp Schematic *Some Real-World Limitations of Operational Amplifiers Voltage offset *Example 3.2: Op-amp driving capacitive load *References CHAPTER 4 Finding the Perfect Op Amp for Your Perfect Circuit *Choose the Technology Wisely *Using these Fundamentals *Ampliﬁer Design Pitfalls *ReferencesCHAPTER 5 Review of Passive Components and a Case Study in PC Board Layout *Resistors *Comments on Surface-Mount Resistors *Comments on Resistor Types *Capacitors *Inductors *Discussion of Printed-Circuit Board Layout Issues *Approximate Inductance of a PC Board Trace Above a Ground Plane *Example 5.1: Design case study¡Xhigh-speed semiconductor laser diode driver *References CHAPTER 6 ANALOG LOWPASS FILTERS *A Quick Introduction to Analog Filters *Passive Filters *"Normalization" and "De-normalization" *Poles and Zero's *Active Lowpass Filters *First-Order Filter Section *Sallen-Key Lowpass Filter *Sallen-Key Roll-Off Deficiencies *Denormalizing Sallen-Key Filter Designs *State Variable Lowpass Filters *Cauer and Inverse Chebyshev Active Filters *Denormalizing State Variable or Biquad Designs *Frequency Dependent Negative Resistance (FDNR) Filters *Denormalization of FDNR Filters References *References CHAPTER 7 HIGHPASS FILTERS *Active Highpass Filters *First-Order Filter Section *Sample-and-Difference Circuit *Sallen-Key Highpass Filter *Using Lowpass Pole to Find Component Values *Using Highpass Poles to Find Component Values *Operational Ampliﬁer Requirements *Denormalizing Sallen-Key or First-Order Designs *State Variable Highpass Filters *Cauer and Inverse Chebyshev Active Filters *Denormalizing State Variable or Biquad Designs *Gyrator Filters *ReferencesCHAPTER 8 Noise ¡V The Three Categories: Device, Conducted and Emitted *Deﬁnitions of Noise Speciﬁcations and Terms *References Chapter 9 How to Design Analog Circuits without a Computer or a Lot of Paper *My Background *Breaking Down a Circuit *Equivalent Circuits *Stock Parts Values *RC Networks *Stabilizing a Feedback Loop *Circuit Impedance *New Parts *Breadboarding *Testing *How Much To Learn *Settling Time TesterCHAPTER 10 BANDPASS FILTERS *Lowpass to Bandpass Transformation *Passive Filters *Formula for Passive Bandpass Filter Denormalization *Active Bandpass Filters *Bandpass Poles and Zeroes *Bandpass Filter Midband Gain *Multiple Feedback Bandpass Filter *Dual Ampliﬁer Bandpass (DABP) Filter *Denormalizing DABP Active Filter Designs *State Variable Bandpass Filters *Denormalization of State Variable Design *Cauer and Inverse Chebyshev Active Filters *Denormalizing Biquad Designs *References CHAPTER 11 Bandstop (Notch) Filters *Passive Filters *Formula for Passive Bandstop Filter Denormalization *Active Bandstop Filters *Bandstop Poles and Zeroes *The Twin Tee Bandstop Filter *Denormalization of Twin Tee Notch Filter *Bandstop Using Multiple Feedback Bandpass Section *Denormalization of Bandstop Design Using MFBP Section *Bandstop Using Dual Ampliﬁer Bandpass (DABP) Section *Denormalization of Bandstop Design Using DABP Section *State Variable Bandstop Filters *Denormalization of Bandstop State Variable Filter Section *Cauer and Inverse Chebyshev Active Filters *Denormalization of Bandstop Biquad Filter Section *References Chapter 12 Current¡VFeedback Amplifiersƒn *The Conventional Op Amp *Gain¡VBandwidth Trade-off *Slew-Rate Limiting *The Current¡VFeedback Amplifier *No Gain¡VBandwidth Trade-off *Absence of Slew-Rate Limiting *Second-Order Effects *CF Application Considerations *CF Amp Integrators *Stray Input¡VCapacitance Compensation *Noise in CF Amp Circuits *Low Distortion for Fast Sine Waves Using CF Amps *Drawbacks of Current Feedback Amplifiers, versus Conventional Op-amps. *ReferencesCHAPTER 13 The Basics Behind Analog-to-Digital Converters *The Key Speciﬁcations of Your ADC *Delta-sigma (∆−£U) Converters *Decimation Filter *Conclusion *References CHAPTER 14 The Right ADC for the Right Application *Classes of Input Signals *Temperature Sensor Signal Chains *Using an RTD for Temperature Sensing: SAR Converter or Delta-Sigma Solution? *The RTD Current Excitation Circuit for the SAR Circuit *RTD Signal Conditioning Path Using the SAR ADC *Is the SAR ADC Right for this Temperature Sensing Application? *RTD Signal Conditioning Path Using the Delta-sigma ADC *Is the Delta-sigma ADC Right for this Temperature Sensing Application? *Measuring Pressure: SAR Converter or Delta-sigma Solution? *The Piezoresistive Pressure Sensor *The Pressure Sensor Signal Conditioning Path Using a SAR ADC *Pressure Sensor Signal Conditioning Path Using a Delta-sigma ADC *Photodiode Applications *Photosensing Signal Conditioning Path Using a SAR ADC *Photosensing Signal Conditioning Path Using a Delta-sigma ADC *Motor Control Solutions *Conclusion *ReferencesCHAPTER 15 Working the Analog Problem From the Digital Domain *Pulse Width Modulators (PWM) Used as a Digital-to-Analog Converter *Looking At This Reference in the Time Domain *Changing This Digital Signal to Analog *Deﬁning Your Analog Low-Pass Filter for your PWM-DAC *Pulling the Time Domain and Frequency Domain Together *Using the Comparator for Analog Conversions *Input Range of a Comparator (VIN+ and VIN¡V) *Input Hysteresis *Window Comparator *Combining the Comparator with a Timer *Using the Timer and Comparator to Build a Delta-Sigma A/D Converter *Delta-Sigma Theory *The Controller Implementation *Error Analysis of this Delta-sigma A/D Converter Implemented with a Controller *RDS ON Error *RA0 Port Leakage Current *Nonsymmetrical Output Port (RA3) *Voltage Reference *Other Input Ranges *Input Range of 2 V to 3 V *Input Range of 10 V to 15 V *Input Range of ¡Ó500 mV *Conclusion *References Chapter 16 What¡¦s All This Error Budget Stuff, Anyhow?Chapter 17 What's All This VBE Stuff, Anyhow?Chapter 18 The Zoo CircuitAPPENDIX A Analog-to-Digital Converter Speciﬁcation Deﬁnitions and Formulas Appendix B Capacitor Coefficients for Lowpass Sallen-Key Filters