# Analog and Digital Filter Design

**By**

- Steve Winder, Supertex Inc., Ipswich, Suffolk, UK

Unlike most books on filters, Analog and Digital Filter Design does not start from a position of mathematical complexity. It is written to show readers how to design effective and working electronic filters. The background information and equations from the first edition have been moved into an appendix to allow easier flow of the text while still providing the information for those who are interested. The addition of questions at the end of each chapter as well as electronic simulation tools has allowed for a more practical, user-friendly text.

View full description### Audience

Engineers in RF, Audio and other analog and digital communications circuit design, test & measurement, and production environments

### Book information

- Published: October 2002
- Imprint: NEWNES
- ISBN: 978-0-7506-7547-5

### Reviews

...an aid to practical filter design by engineers. -Microwave Journal, 2003

### Table of Contents

Introduction; Analog Filters; The Path To Analog Filter Design; Digital Filters; Digital Filter Types; The Path To Digital Filter Design; Exercises; Time And Frequency Response; Filter Requirements; The Time Domain; Analog Filter Normalization; Normalized Lowpass Responses; Bessel Response; Bessel Normalized Lowpass Filter Component Values; Butterworth Response; Butterworth Normalized Lowpass Component Values; Normalized Component Values for RL))RS OR RL((RS; Normalized Component Values for Source and Load Impedances within a Factor of TenChebyshev Response; Normalized Component Values; Equal Load Normalized Component Value Tables; Normalized Element Values for Filters with RS=0 OR RS=*; Inverse Chebyshev Response; Component Values Normalized for 1RAD/S Stopband; Normalized 3dB Cut-off Frequencies and Passive Component Values; Cauer ResponsePassive Cauer Filters; Normalized Cauer Component Values; The Cut-off Frequency; Poles and Zeroes; Frequency and Time Domain Relationship; The S-Plane; Frequency Response and the S-plane; Impulse Response and the S-plane; The Laplace Transform - Converting between Time and Frequency Domains; First Order Filters; Pole and Zero Locations; Butterworth Poles; Bessel Poles; Chebyshev Pole Locations; Inverse Chebyshev Pole and Zero Locations; Inverse Chebyshev Zero Locations; Cauer Pole and Zero Locations; Cauer Pole Zero Plot; Analog Lowpass Filters; Passive Filters; Formulae for Passive Lowpass Filter De-Normalization; De-Normalizing Passive Filters with Resonant Elements; Mains Filter Design; Active Lowpass Filters; First Order Filter Section; Sallen and Key Lowpass Filter; Denormalizing Sallen and Key Filter Designs; State Variable Lowpass Filters; Cauer and Inverse Chebyshev Active Filters; De-Normalizing State Variable or Biquad Designs; Frequency Dependant Negative Resistance (FDNR) Filters; Denormalization of FDNR Filters; Highpass FiltersPassive Filters; Formulae for Passive Highpass Filter De-Normalization; Highpass Filters with Transmission Zeroes; Active Highpass Filters; First Order Filter Section; Sallen and Key Highpass Filter; Using Lowpass Pole to Find Component Values; Using Highpass Poles to Find Component Values; Operational Amplifier Requirements; De-Normalizing Sallen and Key or First Order Designs; State Variable Highpass Filters; Cauer and Inverse Chebyshev Active Filters; Denormalizing State Variable or Biquad Designs; Gyrator Filters; Bandpass Filters; Lowpass to Bandpass Transformation; Passive Filters; Formula for Passive Bandpass Filter De-Normalisation; Passive Cauer and Inverse Chebyshev Bandpass Filters; Active Bandpass Filters; Bandpass Poles and Zeroes; Bandpass Filter Mid-band Gain; Multiple Feedback Bandpass Filter; Denormalising MFBP Active Filter Designs; Dual Amplifier Bandpass (DABP) Filter; Denormalising DABP Active Filter Designs; State Variable Bandpass Filters; Denormalization of State Variable Design; Cauer and Inverse Chebyshev Active Filters; Denormalising Biquad Designs; Bandstop Filters; Passive Filters; Formula for Passive Bandstop Filter De-Normalization; Passive Cauer and Inverse Chebyshev Bandstop Filters; Active Bandstop Filters; Bandstop Poles and Zeroes; The Twin Tee Bandstop Filter; De-Normalization of Twin-tee Notch Filter; Bandstop Using Multiple Feedback Bandpass Section; De-Normalization of Bandstop Design Using MFBP Section; Bandstop Using Dual Amplifier Bandpass (DABP) Section; De-Normalization of Bandstop Design Using DABP Section; State Variable Bandstop Filters; De-Normalization of Bandstop State Variable Filter Section; Cauer and Inverse Chebyshev Active Filters; De-Normalization of Bandstop Bi-Quad Filter Section; Impedance Matching Networks; Power Splitters and Diplexer Filters; Power Splitters and Combiners; Designing a Diplexer; Impedance Matching Networks; Series and Parallel Circuit Relationships; Matching using L, T and PI Networks; Component Values for L Networks; Component Values for PI and T Networks; Bandpass Matching into a Single Reactance Load; Simple Networks and VSWR; VSWR of L Matching Network (Type A); VSWR of L Matching Network (Type B); VSWR of 'T' Matching Networks; VSWR of 'PI' Matching Networks; Phase Shift Networks (All-Pass Filters); Phase Equalising All-Pass Filters; Introduction to the Problem; Detailed Analysis; The Solution - All-Pass Networks; Passive First Order Equalisers; Passive Second Order Equalisers; Active First Order Equalisers; Active Second Order Equalisers; Equalisation of Butterworth and Chebyshev Filters; Group Delay of Butterworth Filters; Equalisation of Chebyshev Filters; Chebyshev Group Delay; Quadrature Networks and Single Sideband Generation; Selecting Components for Analog Filters; Capacitors; Inductors; Resistors; The Printed Circuit Board (Pcb); Surface Mount Pcbs; Assembly and Test; Operational Amplifiers; Measurements on Filters; Filter Design Software; Filter Design Programs; Supplied Software; Active_F; Filter2; Ellipse; Diplexer; Match2a; Transmission Lines and Printed Circuit Boards as Filters; Transmission Lines as Filters; Open Circuit Line; Short Circuit Line; Use of Mis-Terminated Lines; Printed Circuits as Filters; Bandpass Filters; Filters For Phase Locked Loops; Higher Order Loops; Analog Versus Digital Phase Locked Loop; Practical Digital Phase Locked Loop; Phase Noise; Capture And Lock Range; Filter Integrated Circuits; Continuous Time Filters; Integrated Circuit Filter Uaf42; Integrated Circuit Filter Max274; Integrated Circuit Filter Max275; Integrated Circuit Filter Max270/Max271; Switched Capacitor Filters; Switched Capacitor Filter Ic Lt1066-1; Microprocessor Programmable Ics Max260/Max261/Max262; Pin Programmable ICS Max263/Max264/Max267/Max268; Other Switched Capacitor Filters; An Application of Switched Capacitor Filters; Resistor Value Calculations; Synthesizer Filtering; Introduction to Digital Filters; Analog-To-Digital Conversion; Digital Filtering; Digital Lowpass Filters; Truncation (Applied To Fir Filters); Transforming the Lowpass Response; Bandpass Fir Filter; Highpass Fir Filter; Bandstop Fir Filter; Dsp Implementation of an Fir Filter; Introduction to the Infinite Response Filter; Dsp Mathematics; Binary and Hexadecimal; Two's Complement; Adding Two's Complement Numbers; Subtracting Two's Complement Numbers; Multiplication; Division; Signal Handling; So, why use a digital filter?; Digital 'Fir' Filter Design; Frequency vs. Time domain responses; Windows; Summary of Fixed Fir Windows; Fir Filter Coefficient Calculation; A Data-Sampling Rate Changer; IIR Filter Design; Bilinear Transformation; Pre-Warping; De-Normalization; IIR Filter Stability; Design Equations