Alternative Formulations and Packaging to Reduce Use of Chlorofluorocarbons


  • T.P. Nelson
  • S.L. Wevill

This book describes alternative formulations and packaging techniques for the reduction or elimination of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) use as an aerosol propellant. Use of CFCs in specific categories of aerosols considered "nonessential" was banned by the U.S. in 1978. Recent renewed interest in further reducing worldwide production and consumption of CFCs, and other chemicals implicated in the depletion of the earth's stratospheric ozone layer, is responsible for this study, which covers currently exempted and excluded CFC aerosol applications and their alternatives.
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Environmental engineers, students.


Book information

  • Published: December 1990
  • ISBN: 978-0-8155-1257-8

Table of Contents

Part I. Background and Overview1. Introduction Historical Perspective Montreal Protocol Requirements Objectives and Organization of the Report2. CFC Aerosol Applications Exempted in the U.S. Rationale for Exempted Uses of CFC Aerosols Rationale for Excluded Uses of CFC Aerosols Summary3. Current U.S. Consumption of CFCs Discussion of the Data U.S. Marketers and Fillers of CFC Products4. Suggested Alternative Formulations for Exempted and Excluded CFC Aerosols Introduction Discussion of Alternative CFC Formulations Summary5. Procedures for and Costs of Substituting Alternative Formulations for CFC Aerosols Introduction Cost of Converting Filling Lines Methods and Costs for Developing Alternative Formulations for CFC Aerosols Excluded Products Procedures for Changing from CFC to Alternative Formulations Summary6. Conclusions Aerosol Uses for Which CFCs are Difficult to Eliminate (and Possible Interim Reformulations) Potential for Reduction of CFC Use in Exempted and Excluded Aerosols Near-Term CFC Reductions Longer-Range CFC Reductions Summary References Appendix A: Additional Information on MDIDs Appendix B: DOT Regulations for Compressed Gases Appendix C: Metric (SI) Conversion FactorsPart II. Alternative Formulations and Aerosol Dispensing SystemsSection 1. Alternative Aerosol Formulations 1. Introduction 2. Formulation Guidelines General Considerations 3. Example Non-CFC Alternative Formulations Cosmetics, Toiletries and Personal Care Products Household Products Pesticide Aerosol Products Pharmaceutical Products Industrial Aerosol ProductsSection 2. Alternative Aerosol Dispensing Systems 1. Introduction Definitions 2. Description of Aerosol Packaging Alternatives Bag-in-Can Types Piston Cans Independent Bag-in-Can Systems Pump Sprays - Aspirator Types Pump-Sprays - Standard Types Dispensing Closures Pressurizing Dispensers Miscellaneous Aerosol Alternatives 3. SummaryAppendix A: Metric (SI) Conversion Factors