Air Pollution in the 21st Century
Priority Issues and PolicyBy
- T. Schneider, RIVM, Postbus 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven, The Netherlands
This symposium was jointly organized by the United States Environmental Protection Agency and The Netherlands Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment. These proceedings will provide a stimulus for taking up the challenges of environmental policy development in the 21st century, and will contribute to continuing co-operation.
Clean air is a basic condition for health. Air pollution aggravates respiratory problems, leading to increased sickness absenteeism, increased use of health care services and even premature mortality. Air pollution is under intensive discussion in the United States and Europe.
In The Netherlands, a wide range of policy instruments have been formulated which have reduced air pollution. For example; since 1975, sulphur dioxide and lead emissions have been reduced. However, emission reduction figures for many other substances are more modest. Many air pollution problems persist because progress in countering these problems is nullified by growth in the economy and traffic.
Another important target is the prevention of climate change. The international community is agreed that the increasing concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has led to a gradual increase in the earth's temperature. In terms of the environmental consequences and social implications, the greenhouse problem surpasses all other air quality problems.Across Europe, strategies are being developed to reduce acidification and photochemical air pollution. An air emission ceiling for each country in the European Union is being agreed. In the area of climate change, there is good co-operation between the United States, The Netherlands and other EU Members States in the ongoing global negotiations. This is the start of a new movement. In the last century economies and societies developed through increasing human productivity. In the next century they must develop through increasing the productivity of fuel and natural resources.
For scientists, policy makers and politicians with an interest in environmental policy development to improve air quality.
Studies in Environmental Science
Published: March 1999
- Section headings and selected papers: Opening Session. Facing the air pollution agenda for the 21st century (M. de Boer). Air quality: the European perspective (M. Enthoven). Particulate Matter. Human health risks of airborne particles: historical perspective (M. Lippmann). Fine and coarse particles: chemical and physical properties important for the standard-setting process (W.E. Wilson). Climate Change. Improving integrated assessments for applications to decision making (J.C. Bernabo). Estimating socio-economic impacts of climate change (T.S.J. Tol). Persistent Organic Pollutants. Dioxins: Dutch/European historical perspective and current evaluation of human health risks (J.A.G. van de Weil). Dioxins: Dutch/ Western European control policy, impact on emissions and on human exposure (J.A. van Zorge). Ozone/ NOx. Photochemical oxidant air pollution: a historical perspective (A. Davidson). Numerical forecasting of ozone at the surface (O. Hov, F. Flatoy). Assessing effects of ambient ozone on crops in The Netherlands with ethylenediurea (EDU): spatial and temporal variation (A.E.G. Tonneijck, C.J. van Dijk). Ozone health effects: repeated exposure and sensitive subjects (L.J. Folinsbee). Mobile Sources and Transport. Sustainable transport - the challenge ahead (M.P. Walsh). European transport: emission trends and policy responses (A.N. Bleijenberg, J.M.W. Dings). Aviation and air pollution (J.H.A.M. Peeters). Transportation and market incentives group - strategic plan for the 21st century (L. Audette). Transport, economy and air pollution in the 21st century (H.J. van Zuylen). Environment and Economy. Sustainable economic development (L.B. Lave). Dual goal: economic growth along with environmental improvement (H. Verbruggen). Integrated Urban Planning. Influence of land-use on traffic and environmental impact of traffic (B. van Wee, B. van Bleek). Environmental planning and the compact city - a Dutch perspective (G. de Roo).